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Health Library A to Z

C

  • Asthma and Children
  • How asthma will affect a child throughout his/her lifetime varies, depending on the child.

  • Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery
  • Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

  • Blood Tests
  • Detailed information on blood tests used to diagnosis heart disease

  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children
  • Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."

  • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child
  • Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

  • Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room
  • A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

  • Caring for a Child With Type 1 Diabetes
  • If your child suddenly develops a fever and grows weak, tired and nauseated, the youngster probably has the flu or some other virus. But the symptoms could also be warning signs of type 1 (juvenile) diabetes.

  • Caring for Tiny Teeth
  • Make sure your baby's developing teeth are not at risk from nursing or bottle tooth decay.

  • Caring for Your Sick Child
  • You should always call a doctor if you have any doubts or questions about how to take care of your sick child at home.

  • Cast Types and Maintenance Instructions
  • The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

  • Cat Scratch Disease in Children
  • Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. Young kittens younger than a year old are more likely to scratch, increasing the likelihood of infection.

  • Cataracts in Children
  • Detailed information on cataracts, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Causes of Cancer
  • There is no one single cause for cancer. Scientists believe that it is the interaction of many factors--genetic, environmental, or constitutional characteristics of the individual.

  • Cellulitis in Children
  • Detailed information on cellulitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

  • Cheerleading Safety
  • A safe cheerleading program will include direct adult supervision, proper conditioning, skills training and warm-up exercises.

  • Chemotherapy for Children
  • Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. In most cases, it works by interfering with cancer cells' ability to grow or reproduce.

  • Chiari Malformation
  • A Chiari malformation is a birth defect in the area of the back of the head where the brain and spinal cord connect.

  • Chickenpox
  • Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity

  • Child Care
  • Choosing a childcare provider for your baby is an important decision. Find one who supports your choice to breastfeed and is willing to carry out your plan. Doing so will give you peace of mind and make your transition back to work easier.

  • Child Health Emergencies
  • A good guideline to follow is that a medical emergency is any time your child has an injury or illness you believe threatens his or her health or may cause permanent harm.

  • Child Safety for All Ages
  • Some safety hazards apply to all children. But many problems are especially dangerous for children at a particular age or stage of development. Keep these precautions in mind as your children grow.

  • Childhood Glaucoma
  • Detailed information on childhood glaucoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Childhood Immunizations
  • Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

  • Childproof Your Home for Poisons
  • Always remember that ordinary products you use each day around the home can become dangerous poisons in the hands of a child.

  • Children and Cholesterol
  • If you, your parents or your parents' siblings had a heart attack before age 55, you should have your child's cholesterol tested.

  • Children and Fleas, Mites, and Chiggers
  • Fleas, mites, and chiggers often bite humans, but aren't poisonous. It's sometimes difficult to assess which type of insect caused the bite, or if the rash is caused by poison ivy or other skin conditions.

  • Chlamydia Can Lead to Infertility
  • A lot of us don't realize that chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause no symptoms, meaning you could have an STD and not know it.

  • Choose My Plate Now Tailored to You
  • Many of us used the old Food Pyramid for years to help make sure we were following a balanced diet. Its replacement, Choose My Plate, was introduced in 2011.

  • Chromosome Abnormalities
  • Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Still a Mystery
  • Picture being able to accomplish only half as much each day as you used to—with nothing obvious to account for your exhaustion. That's life for people suffering from CFS.

  • Chronic Lung Disease
  • If your baby was born premature and needed to be on a respirator, her lungs may have been damaged. This can cause a condition called chronic lung disease (CLD). But CLD can be treated, and as lungs mature the condition can improve. Learn about the symptoms and treatments for CLD.

  • Circumcision
  • Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

  • Clubfoot
  • Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

  • Coarctation of the Aorta
  • Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.

  • Cognitive Development
  • During adolescence, the developing teenager acquires the ability to think systematically about all logical relationships within a problem.

  • Colic
  • Though the name sounds like a disease, colic is really just a term for excessive crying in an infant. Unfortunately, nobody knows for sure what causes colic, but there are several theories and possible risk factors for the condition.

  • Common Procedures
  • Detailed information on the most common procedures performed on newborns

  • Common Skin Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections

  • Common Types of Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
  • Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

  • Communication Disorders
  • Young children with communication disorders may not speak at all, or may have a limited vocabulary for their age. Some children with communication disorders have difficulty understanding simple directions or are unable to name objects.

  • Conduct Disorder
  • A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.

  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

  • Congenital Heart Disease Index
  • Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

  • Conjunctivitis
  • You had conjunctivitis as a child, now your baby has symptoms of it. Your first step should be a call to your doctor, who will make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

  • Conjunctivitis (Newborn/Childhood)
  • Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a very common problem in children. Large outbreaks of conjunctivitis are often seen in day-care settings and schools.

  • Constipation in Children
  • Common causes of constipation in children: a low-fiber diet, not enough fluids, lack of exercise, and emotional issues.

  • Contact Lens Safety Tips
  • If you wear contact lenses, it's important to follow your eye care provider's instructions on wearing and disinfecting them.

  • Coping Emotionally
  • Your child's burn care and emotional recovery will continue when you leave the hospital. Along with the excitement, you and your child may also feel uneasy about what will happen next.

  • Corneal Abrasions
  • A corneal abrasion is a scratch or injury to the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. This is a very common occurrence in children.

  • Cough Medicine Abuse by Teens
  • A common ingredient in many cough and cold remedies has become a popular substance to abuse by teenagers searching for a cheap, easy high.

  • Craniosynostosis
  • Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous joints between the skull’s bony plates close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.

  • Cross-Cultural Adoptions Raise Sensitive Issues
  • As the parent of an adopted biracial/bicultural child, it's important to acknowledge that your child is different. The goal is to help your child feel a sense of pride about his or her culture and race so it becomes a positive part of his or her identity.

  • Croup
  • Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

  • Crutch Walking
  • Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • CMV may be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy and is the most common congenital viral infection.

  • Diagnosing Cancer
  • Many tests are necessary to determine whether a child has cancer, or if another condition is mimicking the symptoms of cancer.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Overview of Craniofacial Anomalies
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly

  • Questions to Ask Your Child's Doctor
  • Parents are entitled to a clear explanation about anything related to their child's condition. Here are some important questions you may consider asking your child's doctor.

  • Separation Anxiety Disorder
  • All children and teens experience some anxiety—it's a normal part of growing up. When worries and fears abnormally focus on separation from home or family, the child may have separation anxiety disorder.

  • Small Cuts and Scrapes
  • Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.

  • Thrush or Candidiasis
  • Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and mucous membranes. When the infection occurs in the mouth, it is called thrush.

  • Thumb Sucking
  • Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

  • Treatment for Cancer
  • The specific treatment for your child's cancer will be determined by your child's doctor, based on a variety of factors, including the type of cancer and the extent of the disease.