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Health Library A to Z

A

  • A Child's Concept of Death
  • For infants and toddlers, death has very little meaning. School-aged children begin to understand death as permanent, universal, and inevitable. A predominant theme in adolescence is a feeling of immortality or being exempt from death.

  • A Child's First Dental Visit Fact Sheet
  • You can take your child at a younger age, but experts recommend taking him or her by about 12 months at the latest. The dentist can provide or recommend preventative information regarding baby bottle tooth decay, infant feeding practices, mouth cleaning, teething, pacifier habits and finger-sucking habits.

  • A Q & A on E-Cigarettes
  • More people are lighting up with electronic cigarettes. Unlike regular cigarettes, these devices deliver nicotine without all the smoke. But are they safer? This Q & A explains what’s known about e-cigarettes.

  • About Cancer
  • Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping

  • Abrasions
  • An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a "brush burn." Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.

  • Achondroplasia in Children
  • Achondroplasia is a group of rare genetic (inherited) bone disorders. Achondroplasia is the most common type of what was once called dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length. 

  • Acne in Children
  • Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

  • Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Children
  • Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

  • Adding to Mother's Milk
  • Although your milk is best, it is not always complete with the nutritional needs of very small premature babies or some very sick newborns.

  • Addison's Disease in Children
  • Addison's disease is when the adrenal glands don't make enough of two steroid hormones. The hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, blocks inflammatory reactions, and affects the immune system. Aldosterone manages sodium and potassium levels. Addison's disease is fairly rare and may first appear at any age.

  • Adenovirus Infections
  • Detailed information on adenovirus infections, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • Adjustment Disorders
  • Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.

  • Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries
  • Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problems, osgood schlatter disease, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex guidelines, sports safety, sports injuries, sprains, strains, tennis elbow, mouthguards, heat related illness, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke

  • Age-Appropriate Vision Milestones
  • An infant's eyes are sometimes uncoordinated and may look cross-eyed. Within 2 months, the child can follow faces and objects and look at his or her hands.

  • AIDS/HIV in Children
  • Detailed information on HIV and AIDS, including transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Airway Obstruction Index
  • Infants and children under age 4 are particularly at risk for choking on food or small objects because their upper airways are smaller, and they tend to explore things with their mouths.

  • Airway Obstruction: Prevention
  • Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, it's important to carefully childproof your residence.

  • All About LSD
  • LSD, also called acid, is one of the most commonly used hallucinogens or psychedelic drugs.

  • All About the Immune System
  • Detailed information on the immune system, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the immune system

  • All Family Time Is Quality Time
  • Quality time should be woven into our lives. As our children get older and slip away, we need to stop worrying about the extraordinary and think more about the ordinary."

  • Allergic Rhinitis in Children
  • Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

  • Allergies in Children
  • Allergies are problems of the immune system. Most allergic reactions happen when the immune system reacts to a “false alarm.” Normally, the human body defends itself against harmful things, such as viruses or bacteria. But sometimes the defenses violently attack mostly mild things, such as dust, mold, or pollen.

  • Allergy
  • Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Alpha Thalassemia in Children
  • Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Alpha thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

  • Alternative Therapy for Cancer
  • Alternative therapy is a nonconventional approach to healing. it may be used instead of standard treatment or in combination with standard medicine.

  • Amenorrhea in Teens
  • Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

  • Anaphylaxis in Children
  • Anaphylaxis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening reaction to an allergen. An allergen is something that your child is allergic to. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. Your child can have a reaction to an allergen as quickly as seconds to as long as an hour after contact.

  • Anemia in Children
  • Anemia is a common problem in children. A child who has anemia does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a type of protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to other cells in the body.

  • Anemia in Pregnancy
  • Anemia is when your blood has too few red blood cells. Having too few red blood cells makes it harder for your blood to carry oxygen or iron. This can affect how cells work in nerves and muscles. During pregnancy, your baby also needs your blood.

  • Anencephaly
  • Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.

  • Animal Bites
  • Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • Animals
  • Detailed information on animals as allergens

  • Anomalous Coronary Artery
  • An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a heart defect. This is something your baby is born with (congenital). In ACA, the blood vessels that supply blood to your child’s heart muscle aren’t normal.

  • Anorectal Malformation
  • Anorectal malformations are birth defects, or problems that happen as an unborn baby is developing during pregnancy. With this defect, the anus and rectum don’t develop properly. They are the lower part of the digestive tract.

  • Anorexia Nervosa in Children
  • Anorexia nervosa (AN) is eating disorder that is a form of self-starvation. A child or teen with AN has abnormally low body weight, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight.

  • Anxiety Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

  • Aortic Stenosis in Children
  • Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.

  • Apnea of Prematurity
  • Apnea is a term that means breathing has stopped for more than 20 seconds. It can happen in full-term babies, but it is more common in premature babies. The more premature the baby, the greater the chances that apnea will occur.

  • Appendicitis in Children
  • Appendicitis is a painful swelling and infection of the appendix.  It is a medical emergency. The appendix can burst or rupture. This is serious and can lead to more infection. If not treated, it can be fatal.

  • Arrhythmias in Children
  • An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

  • Asthma in Children
  • Asthma is a long-term (chronic) lung disease that causes your child's airways to become sensitive to certain things (triggers).

  • Asthma in Children Index
  • Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment

  • Atopic Dermatitis in Children
  • Atopic dermatitis is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. It causes itchy skin. It’s a very common condition. It’s more common in babies and children, but also occurs in adults. It usually first appears between ages 3 to 6 months.

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • The atrial septum is the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital).

  • Atrioventricular (AV) Canal
  • An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs. 

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • A child with autism appears to live in his or her own world, showing little interest in others and a lack of social awareness.

  • Avoiding Eye Injuries in Children
  • Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.

  • Facts About Animal Bites
  • Whether the bite is from a family pet or an animal in the wild, scratches and bites can become infected and cause scarring. Animals can also carry diseases that can be transmitted through a bite.

  • Femoral Anteversion
  • Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thigh bone. It is typically detected when a child is 4 to 6 years old.

  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger. It causes inflammation and stiffness of joints. Unlike adult rheumatoid arthritis, which is chronic and lasts a lifetime, children often outgrow JRA. But the disease can affect bone development in a growing child.

  • Metatarsus Adductus
  • Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.

  • Puberty: Adolescent Female
  • Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

  • Puberty: Adolescent Male
  • During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

  • Treatment for a Child's Allergy
  • Detailed information on avoidance of allergens and treatment for allergy, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and medication

  • Types of Anesthesia
  • During surgery, your child will be given some form of anesthesia—medication given to relieve pain and sensation.

  • Your Child: At 2 Years
  • Remember that "terrible twos" phase of a child's life also can be the "terrific twos." Watching your children grow and learn is an enriching experience.

  • Your Child's Asthma
  • How asthma will affect a child throughout his/her lifetime varies, depending on the child.

  • Your Child's Asthma: Flare-ups
  • Your child's breathing will become harder and may hurt. You may hear a wheezing or whistling sound, which is typical of asthma.