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Health Library A to Z

B

  • Babies and Toddlers Need Iron to Thrive
  • Is your new baby getting enough iron? It’s important to know. The mineral provides fuel for growth spurts, brain development and more. Find out the exact amount your new baby needs and good food sources of iron.

  • Babies Need 'Tummy Time'
  • Putting babies to sleep on their backs has dramatically reduced the incidence of SIDS. One unexpected side effect: Many infants now have a flattened head.

  • Bacterial Endocarditis
  • Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.

  • Bacterial Skin Infections in Children
  • Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

  • Basketball: Make Safety a Point
  • Experts say players can avoid injury by strengthening muscles through a supervised weight-training program before the season. That helps prevent injuries to knees and ankles, the most common court injuries.

  • Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn
  • Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his/her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the facts—and proper supplies—to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

  • Behavior Changes
  • Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

  • Beware of Over-the-Counter Contact Lenses
  • Contacts that aren't properly prescribed and cared for can lead to allergic reactions, bacterial infections, corneal ulcers, and corneal scrapes. Some problems can end in blindness.

  • Beware of Supplements for Kids
  • Firms are advertising herbs and supplements as remedies for everything from colds and asthma to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but dietary supplements and herbal mixtures aimed at children may be a waste of money -- and a threat to their health.

  • Bike-Helmet Safety Smarts
  • Whether on an adult or a child, a helmet that has been approved by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and fits correctly will cushion the head in a fall and protect it from impact with other objects.

  • Biliary Atresia
  • Detailed information on biliary atresia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents
  • Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.

  • Birth Defects Index
  • Detailed information on birth defects, including their cause and frequency

  • Birth Injuries
  • For various reasons, some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. Such injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks following the birth.

  • Birth Injury
  • Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

  • Birthmarks
  • Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains

  • Bites
  • Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

  • Bites and Stings
  • Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

  • Biting
  • Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.

  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

  • Blepharitis
  • Detailed information on blepharitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Blood Transfusions in Children
  • If your child's doctor decides that your child needs blood or blood products, he or she will explain the reasons for the transfusion.

  • Blood Types in Pregnancy
  • A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents.

  • Bone Marrow
  • Detailed information on bone marrow and bone marrow transplantation in children

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children
  • The goal of a bone marrow transplant is to transfuse healthy bone marrow cells into a child after his or her own unhealthy bone marrow has been eliminated.

  • Brain Abscess
  • A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

  • Brain Tumors in Children
  • Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Brain tumors that occur in infants and children are very different from adult brain tumors, both in terms of the type of cells and the responsiveness to treatment.

  • Breast Conditions
  • Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

  • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk
  • Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, and it contains them in a form most easily used by the human baby's immature body systems.

  • Breast Self-Examination
  • Become familiar with how your breasts usually look and feel so that you may notice any change from what is normal for you.

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

  • Breastfeeding Your Baby
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain

  • Breastfeeding: Getting Started
  • The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Don't expect to work as a coordinated team immediately.

  • Breathing Problems
  • If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Detailed information on bronchiolitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • Bruises
  • A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.

  • Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)
  • A black eye should be seen by a doctor to make sure no injury has occurred to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

  • Brushing and Toothpaste for Children
  • You should begin brushing your child's teeth around 24 months of age, or as directed by your child's doctor. Children will need help brushing their teeth until they are 7 to 8 years old.

  • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents
  • Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

  • Bullies Go High-Tech
  • You can now add bullying to the list of things made easier by technology. Bullies use e-mail, instant messaging, and text messaging on cell phones to reach victims.

  • Burns in Children
  • Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

  • Burns Overview
  • Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents occur at home.

  • Burns: Symptom Management
  • Most children with burns have pain, which can be controlled with medication. They also usually experience itching at some point during the healing process.

  • Buying a Bike for Your Child
  • Most youngsters learn the basics of pedaling, steering and braking on a tricycle or "big wheel" cycle, and around age 4 are ready to try a two-wheeler with training wheels.

  • Buying Guidelines for Safe and Fun Toys
  • Toy-related injuries send tens of thousands of children to the emergency room each year. Most injuries occur when parents give their children toys meant for older children.

  • Chemical Burns
  • Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.

  • Chemical Burns of the Eye
  • A chemical burn occurs when a child gets any type of chemical in his or her eye. This is a medical emergency, and the child should receive immediate medical care.

  • Electrical Burns
  • Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

  • First-Degree Burns
  • First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, and dry, with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.

  • Gestational Age Assessment
  • It’s not always easy to tell a newborn’s age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That’s when doctors will perform a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

  • Heat or Thermal Burns
  • A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

  • If Your Child Has Difficulty Adjusting
  • Agitated behavior such as crying, sleep disturbances and nightmares, and repeated episodes of sadness are signs that your child may be having difficulty coping with stress.

  • Installing and Using Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats
  • As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Other Benign Skin Growths in Children
  • Detailed information on benign skin growths, including dermatofibromas, dermoid cyst, freckles, keloids, lipomas, moles, atypical moles, pyogenic granulomas

  • Overview of Birth Defects
  • A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

  • Preventing Burn Injuries
  • Here are safety tips: Periodically, check electrical plugs and cords for dirt or fraying. When cooking with hot oil, keep your child a safe distance from the stove. Teach your child to stay away from lighters and matches.

  • Separation Anxiety
  • Separation anxiety usually begins around 6 months of age. Babies may suddenly be afraid of familiar people such as babysitters or grandparents.

  • Surgery and the Breastfeeding Infant
  • If your baby requires surgery, you may feel helpless. But there’s something you can do to make the experience a little less traumatic: breastfeed. Not only is it comforting for your baby, but nursing will provide the most nutritious and easily digestible food for a healing body.

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
  • Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.

  • Why Children Bite
  • A young child may bite out of frustration or when under stress. Biting may also be an attempt to gain power—or just a way of exploring the world.