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Health Library A to Z

B

  • Babies Need 'Tummy Time'
  • Putting babies to sleep on their backs has dramatically reduced the incidence of SIDS. One unexpected side effect: Many infants now have a flattened head.

  • Bacterial Endocarditis in Children
  • Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart (endocardium), and the heart valves. It does not happen very often, but when it does, it can cause serious heart damage.

  • Bacterial Skin Infections in Children
  • Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

  • Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn
  • Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his/her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the facts—and proper supplies—to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

  • Behavior Changes
  • Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

  • Beta Thalassemia in Children
  • Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It is a form of anemia. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Beta thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

  • Beware of Over-the-Counter Contact Lenses
  • Contacts that aren't properly prescribed and cared for can lead to allergic reactions, bacterial infections, corneal ulcers, and corneal scrapes. Some problems can end in blindness.

  • Biliary Atresia
  • Biliary atresia is a rare liver disease that occurs in infants. It is often found shortly after birth. The disorder affects tubes in the liver called bile ducts. If not treated with surgery, it can be fatal.

  • Biophysical Profile
  • A biophysical profile is a test that is sometimes used during the third trimester of pregnancy. It is often done if there is a question about the baby’s health. This may be because of other test results or certain pregnancy symptoms, or because your pregnancy is high risk.

  • Birth Defects Index
  • Detailed information on birth defects, including their cause and frequency

  • Birth Injuries
  • For various reasons, some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. Such injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks following the birth.

  • Birth Injury
  • Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

  • Birthmarks
  • Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains

  • Bites
  • Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

  • Bites and Stings
  • Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

  • Biting
  • Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.

  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

  • Blepharitis in Children
  • Blepharitis is an inflammation in the oil glands of the eyelid. It causes swollen eyelids and crusting around the eyelashes. Even after it’s treated and goes away, it can often come back again and again for years. It can often lead to an infection of the eye and a loss of eyelashes.

  • Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis)
  • A blocked tear duct is called dacryostenosis. It may also be called a congenital lacrimal duct obstruction. Congenital means that your baby is born with it.

  • Blood in the Eye (Hyphema)
  • Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

  • Blood Transfusions in Children
  • If your child's healthcare provider decides that your child needs blood or blood products, he or she will explain the reasons for the transfusion.

  • Blood Types in Pregnancy
  • A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents.

  • Bone Marrow
  • Detailed information on bone marrow and bone marrow transplantation in children

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children
  • The goal of a bone marrow transplant is to transfuse healthy bone marrow cells into a child after his or her own unhealthy bone marrow has been eliminated.

  • Brain Abscess
  • A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

  • Brain Tumors in Children
  • A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

  • Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children
  • A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area does not form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.

  • Breast Conditions in Young Women
  • Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

  • Breastfeeding Your Baby
  • Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain

  • Breastfeeding: Getting Started
  • The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Don't expect to work as a coordinated team immediately.

  • Breastmilk Is Best
  • Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients in a form most easily used by your baby's immature body systems.

  • Breathing Problems
  • If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Detailed information on bronchiolitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • Brown Recluse and Black Widow Spider Bites in Children
  • All spiders in the U.S. are poisonous. The fangs of most spiders are too short or too fragile to break through human skin. Or their poison (venom) is too weak to cause damage. Most spider bites cause only minor, local reactions. But some spider bites can be deadly.

  • Bruises
  • A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.

  • Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)
  • A black eye should be seen by a healthcare provider to make sure no injury has happened to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

  • Brushing and Toothpaste for Children
  • You should begin brushing your child's teeth around 24 months of age, or as directed by your child's doctor. Children will need help brushing their teeth until they are 7 to 8 years old.

  • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents
  • Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

  • Burns in Children
  • Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

  • Burns Overview
  • Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents happen at home.

  • Burns: Symptom Management
  • Most children with burns have pain, which can be controlled with medicine. They also usually experience itching at some point during the healing process.

  • Buying a Bike for Your Child
  • Most youngsters learn the basics of pedaling, steering and braking on a tricycle or "big wheel" cycle, and around age 4 are ready to try a two-wheeler with training wheels.

  • Buying Guidelines for Safe and Fun Toys
  • Toy-related injuries send tens of thousands of children to the emergency room each year. Most injuries occur when parents give their children toys meant for older children.

  • Chemical Burns
  • Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.

  • Electrical Burns
  • Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

  • Gestational Age Assessment
  • It’s not always easy to tell a newborn’s age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That’s when doctors will perform a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

  • Heat or Thermal Burns
  • A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

  • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM)
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, 1 side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects 1 side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

  • Installing and Using Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats
  • As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Other Benign Skin Growths in Children
  • Detailed information on benign skin growths, including dermatofibromas, dermoid cyst, freckles, keloids, lipomas, moles, atypical moles, pyogenic granulomas

  • Overview of Birth Defects
  • A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

  • Preventing Burn Injuries
  • Here are safety tips: Periodically, check electrical plugs and cords for dirt or fraying. When cooking with hot oil, keep your child a safe distance from the stove. Teach your child to stay away from lighters and matches.

  • Separation Anxiety
  • Separation anxiety usually begins around 6 months of age. Babies may suddenly be afraid of familiar people such as babysitters or grandparents.

  • Surgery and the Breastfeeding Infant
  • If your baby requires surgery, you may feel helpless. But there’s something you can do to make the experience a little less traumatic: breastfeed. Not only is it comforting for your baby, but nursing will provide the most nutritious and easily digestible food for a healing body.

  • Temper Tantrums
  • These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often occur only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

  • Why Children Bite
  • A young child may bite out of frustration or when under stress. Biting may also be an attempt to gain power—or just a way of exploring the world.