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Health Library A to Z

C

  • Anomalous Coronary Artery
  • An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a heart defect. This is something your baby is born with (congenital). In ACA, the blood vessels that supply blood to your child’s heart muscle aren’t normal.

  • Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery
  • Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

  • Beta Thalassemia in Children
  • Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It is a form of anemia. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Beta thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

  • Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis)
  • A blocked tear duct is called dacryostenosis. It may also be called a congenital lacrimal duct obstruction. Congenital means that your baby is born with it.

  • Candidiasis in Children
  • Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast called Candida. Candida normally causes no harm, and is found on the skin, vaginal area, and digestive system. But in some cases, it can overgrow. This can cause a rash, itching, and other symptoms.

  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children
  • Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."

  • Cardiac Catheterization in Children
  • Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a long, flexible tube (catheter) is put into a blood vessel. The doctor then guides the catheter into the heart to find and treat heart problems.

  • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child
  • Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

  • Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room
  • A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

  • Cast Types and Maintenance Instructions
  • The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

  • Cat Scratch Disease in Children
  • Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. It is passed from a cat bite or scratch to a human. It can also result from a fleabite, but cats are the main source.

  • Cataracts in Children
  • A cataract is a clouding (opaque area) over the lens of the eye. This area is normally clear (transparent). Some cataracts are small and don’t cause any trouble with vision. Other, more progressive cataracts can cause visual problems in children. Cataracts are rare in children.

  • Causes of Cancer
  • There is no one single cause for cancer. Scientists believe that it is the interaction of many factors—genetic, environmental, or constitutional characteristics of the individual.

  • Cellulitis in Children
  • Cellulitis is a spreading skin infection. It may affect the upper skin layer. Or it may affect the deeper skin and layer of fat under the skin. When cellulitis affects the upper skin layer, it may be called erysipelas. This type of infection is more common in children.

  • Cellulitis of the Eye in Children
  • Cellulitis is a serious type of infection and inflammation. It can occur in various parts of the body. When it occurs in the eyelid and tissues in the front part of the eye area, it’s called pre-septal cellulitis. When it occurs behind and around the eye in the eye socket (orbit), it’s called orbital cellulitis. Both of these conditions are serious.

  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

  • Chalazion in Children
  • A chalazion (kuh-LAY-zee-un) is a slow-growing, painless lump in the eyelid that forms because of the swelling of an oil gland. It’s more common in adults between ages 30 and 50 than in children.

  • Cheerleading Safety
  • A safe cheerleading program will include direct adult supervision, proper conditioning, skills training and warm-up exercises.

  • Chemotherapy for Children
  • Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years. It’s one of the most common treatments for cancer.

  • Chemotherapy-Related Hair Loss (Alopecia) in Children
  • Hair loss is a common side effect of chemotherapy. It can affect the hair on the head, and also the eyebrows, eyelashes, and facial and pubic hair. Not all chemotherapy causes hair loss. And not all children lose hair in the same way.

  • Chemotherapy-Related Mouth Mucositis in Children
  • Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer. The medicines can cause an inflammation of the lining of the mouth. The mouth is lined with mucous membranes. When these are inflamed, it’s called mouth mucositis.

  • Chiari Malformation Type I in Children
  • A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening (foramen magnum) at the bottom of the skull. In some cases, more brain tissue also dips down through this opening.

  • Chickenpox
  • Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity

  • Child Care
  • Choosing a childcare provider for your baby is an important decision. Find one who supports your choice to breastfeed and is willing to carry out your plan. Doing so will give you peace of mind and make your transition back to work easier.

  • Child Health Emergencies
  • A good guideline to follow is that a medical emergency is any time your child has an injury or illness you believe threatens his or her health or may cause permanent harm.

  • Childhood Immunizations
  • Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

  • Childproof Your Home for Poisons
  • Always remember that ordinary products you use each day around the home can become dangerous poisons in the hands of a child.

  • Chromosome Abnormalities
  • Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations

  • Circumcision
  • Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

  • Classification of Burns
  • Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severe they penetrate the skin's surface.

  • Cleft Lip and Palate
  • Cleft lip and palate are openings or splits in the upper lip or roof of the mouth (palate). A child can be born with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Cleft lip and palate may be the only birth defects, or they may happen with other defects.

  • Clubfoot
  • Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

  • Coarctation of the Aorta (COA)
  • Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It means the aorta is narrower than it should be.

  • Cognitive Development in Adolescence
  • Cognitive development means the growth of a child’s ability to think and reason. This growth happens differently from ages 6 to 12, and ages 12 to 18.

  • Colic
  • Colic is when a healthy baby cries for a very long time, for no obvious reason. It is a common problem that affects some babies during the first 3 to 4 months of life.

  • Common Procedures
  • Detailed information on the most common procedures performed on newborns

  • Common Skin Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections

  • Common Types of Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
  • Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Children
  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency problem that causes the child to have a low level of antibodies and a decreased responsiveness to some vaccines. This makes it difficult for the child’s body to fight diseases. The child then becomes sick with infections that keep coming back.

  • Communication Disorders
  • Young children with communication disorders may not speak at all, or may have a limited vocabulary for their age. Some children with communication disorders have difficulty understanding simple directions or are unable to name objects.

  • Conduct Disorder
  • A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.

  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

  • Congenital Heart Disease Index
  • Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism in Children
  • Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Congenital hypothyroidism is when the disorder is present in a baby at birth. If not treated, it can lead to serious health problems.

  • Congenital Laryngeal Stridor in Children
  • Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).

  • Congenital Muscular Torticollis
  • Congenital torticollis means that a baby is born with an odd position of the neck. The odd position is because of a tight, short neck muscle. It affects the right side more often than the left side. It may range from mild to severe. The condition is sometimes called wryneck.

  • Conjunctivitis in Children
  • Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the eyeball. Conjunctivitis is also known as “pink eye.”

  • Constipation in Children
  • Constipation is when a child has very hard stools, and has fewer bowel movements than he or she normally does. It is a very common GI (gastrointestinal) problem.

  • Contact Lens Safety Tips
  • If you wear contact lenses, it's important to follow your eye care provider's instructions on wearing and disinfecting them.

  • Coping Emotionally
  • Your child's burn care and emotional recovery will continue when you leave the hospital. Along with the excitement, you and your child may also feel uneasy about what will happen next.

  • Corneal Abrasions
  • A corneal abrasion is a scratch or scrape on the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

  • Cough Medicine Abuse by Teens
  • A common ingredient in many cough and cold remedies has become a popular substance to abuse by teenagers searching for a cheap, easy high.

  • Cradle Cap
  • Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

  • Craniosynostosis
  • Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.

  • Crohn's Disease in Children
  • Crohn's disease is when there is redness, swelling (inflammation), and sores along the digestive tract. It is part of a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease or IBD.

  • Croup
  • Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

  • Crutch Walking
  • Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Newborns
  • CMV is a herpes virus. It is very common. It affects people of all ages and parts of the U.S. Most of the time, CMV causes mild or no symptoms. But, it can cause serious problems in a fetus or newborn.

  • Diagnosing Cancer
  • Many tests are necessary to determine whether a child has cancer, or if another condition is imitating the symptoms of cancer.

  • Herpangina
  • Herpangina is an illness caused by a virus. Your child may have small bumps at the back of the throat or on the roof of the mouth. Your child may also have a high fever.

  • Hirschsprung Disease
  • Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

  • Medical Genetics: Chromosome Studies
  • When a chromosome is abnormal, it can cause health problems in the body. Tests called studies can look at chromosomes to see what type of problem a person has.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Normal Growth
  • A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • Overview of Craniofacial Anomalies
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly

  • Scoliosis in Children
  • Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Separation Anxiety Disorder
  • All children and teens experience some anxiety—it's a normal part of growing up. When worries and fears abnormally focus on separation from home or family, the child may have separation anxiety disorder.

  • Small Cuts and Scrapes
  • Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.

  • Strabismus
  • Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes. The eyes (one or both) may turn inward, outward, up, or down. This condition is also called wandering eye or crossed eyes.

  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexplained death of a baby younger than 1 year old. SIDS is sometimes called crib death because the death happens when a baby is sleeping in a crib. It’s one of the leading causes of death in babies from ages 1 month to 1 year. It happens most often between 2 and 4 months old.

  • Thumb Sucking
  • Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography in Children
  • Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

  • Treatment for Cancer
  • The specific treatment for your child's cancer will be determined by your child's healthcare provider, based on a variety of factors, including the type of cancer and the extent of the disease.