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Health Library A to Z

D

  • Baby's Care in the Delivery Room
  • A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

  • Deformational Plagiocephaly
  • Deformational plagiocephaly is when a baby develops a lasting flat spot either on one side or the back of the head. It happens when a baby sleeps in the same position most of the time or because of problems with the neck muscles. The condition is also called flat heat syndrome.

  • Delayed Puberty
  • Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity don’t appear by age 13 in girls or age 14 in boys. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics.

  • Dental Emergencies
  • One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.

  • Dental Health Overview
  • Generally, dental examinations and cleanings are recommended every six months for children. Encourage good oral hygiene at home by helping your child brush his or her own teeth.

  • Dental Procedures for Children
  • Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction

  • Dermatitis in Children
  • Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis

  • Dermoid Cyst in Children
  • A dermoid cyst is a pocket or hole under the skin. It contains tissue normally found in the outer layers of the skin. This might be hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands. Oil and sweat collect inside the cyst, causing it to get larger.

  • Diabetes Index
  • Detailed information on diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, teens and diabetes, and diet and diabetes

  • Diabetes Insipidus in Children
  • Diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is also known as vasopressin. This is a hormone that helps the kidneys keep the correct amount of water in the body. The condition is also called “water diabetes.”

  • Dialysis
  • Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

  • Diaper Dermatitis in Children
  • Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

  • Diapers/Diaper Rash
  • You have two choices in diapers—cloth or disposable, and each type has advantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

  • Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect. It happens in a baby during pregnancy. In this condition, there’s an opening in your baby’s diaphragm. This is the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

  • Diarrhea in Children
  • Diarrhea is when stools (bowel movements) are loose and watery. Your child may also need to go to the bathroom more often.

  • Diet and Diabetes
  • It is important to learn about proper meal-planning when your child has diabetes. The type and amount of food your child eats affects his/her blood sugar levels.

  • Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)
  • Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all three diseases.

  • Discharge from the Hospital
  • Even after minor surgery, some children will remain in the hospital overnight for observation and to receive medications to help with pain or to prevent infection.

  • Discipline
  • Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

  • Discussing Death with Children
  • The ultimate goal in discussing death with a dying child is to optimize his or her comfort and alleviate any fears. If the child is not ready to discuss death, the most helpful step parents can take is to wait until he or she is ready.

  • Dislocations
  • A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to separate. Ligaments are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect various bones and cartilage.

  • Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism
  • Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

  • Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands
  • Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

  • Disorders Affecting the Thyroid
  • Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

  • Doppler Flow Study
  • Doppler flow is a type of ultrasound. It uses sound waves to measure the flow of blood through a blood vessel. The results are shown on a computer screen in lines called waveforms. It’s sometimes called Doppler velocimetry. A Doppler flow study may be used during pregnancy to check the health of the unborn baby (fetus).

  • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of mental retardation, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects.

  • Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents
  • Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

  • Dysphagia
  • Dysphagia means trouble swallowing. This condition happens when food or liquids can’t pass easily from your child’s mouth, into the throat, down the esophagus, and into the stomach when swallowing.

  • General Principles of Discipline
  • Most children need to be given consistent, clear rules and expectations about behavior. Discipline needs to begin as soon as the child is mobile—pulling up and crawling.

  • Medicine Rashes in Children
  • Medicine rashes are the body’s reaction to a certain medicine. The type of rash that occurs depends on the type of medicine that is causing it. Rashes can range from mild to severe.

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease
  • Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.

  • Teens and Diabetes
  • During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.

  • The Growing Child: 10 to 12 Months
  • Your child can now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly two other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture such as shaking the head.

  • The Growing Child: 1-Year-Olds
  • Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

  • The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds
  • Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

  • The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds
  • Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

  • The Growing Child: Newborn
  • In the first month of life, babies usually catch up and surpass their birthweight, then steadily continue to gain weight.