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Health Library A to Z

E

  • Atrioventricular (AV) Canal in Children
  • An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.

  • Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear
  • Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a healthcare provider to decide if stitches are needed.

  • Ear Disorders
  • Detailed information on ear disorders in children

  • Effective Sucking
  • It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he or she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

  • Egg Allergy Diet for Children
  • Parents of children with egg sensitivity may not be aware of the variety of food products that contain eggs. That's why it's important to carefully read food labels.

  • Eisenmenger Syndrome in Children
  • Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of pulmonary artery hypertension. In this condition, the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs narrow. This makes the pressure of blood flow against the walls of the arteries (blood pressure) too high. The heart must work harder to pump blood into the lungs. This causes lung damage.

  • Electrocardiography in Children
  • Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it.

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children
  • An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain (brain waves). Small, round discs with wires (electrodes) are placed on the scalp during the test. The electrodes are not painful to your child.

  • Emergency Contact Information
  • In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.

  • Encephalitis in Children
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This leads to changes in a child's nervous system that can include confusion, changes in alertness, and seizures.

  • Encopresis
  • Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Children
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

  • Epiglottitis in Children
  • The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue at the very back of the throat. When the epiglottis becomes swollen and inflamed, it is called epiglottitis.

  • Epilepsy and Seizures in Children
  • Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

  • Ewing Sarcoma in Children
  • Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

  • Exercise and Adolescents
  • Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

  • Eye Protection Keeps Kids in the Game
  • The sports that cause the most injuries are basketball, baseball, pool sports, and racket sports. But any sport that involves a projectile is considered hazardous to the eyes.

  • Eye Trauma
  • Detailed information on eye trauma in children

  • Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses
  • A child who needs vision correction may wear eyeglasses or contact lenses. Either choice comes in a range of choices.

  • Fifth Disease in Children
  • Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

  • Medical Genetics: Chromosome Studies
  • When a chromosome is abnormal, it can cause health problems in the body. Tests called studies can look at chromosomes to see what type of problem a person has.

  • Prune Belly Syndrome in Children
  • A child with prune belly syndrome often can't completely empty his or her bladder. This can cause serious bladder, ureter, and kidney problems.

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography in Children
  • Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

  • Trisomy 13 and Trisomy 18 in Children
  • Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are genetic disorders. They include a combination of birth defects. This includes severe learning problems and health problems that affect nearly every organ in the body.

  • Tympanostomy Tubes
  • Tympanostomy (ear) tubes are small tubes. They’re placed into your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes may be made of plastic, metal, or other material.