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Health Library A to Z

E

  • Atrioventricular (AV) Canal
  • An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs. 

  • Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear
  • Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a doctor to decide if stitches are needed.

  • Ear Disorders
  • Detailed information on ear disorders in children

  • Effective Sucking
  • It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he/she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

  • Egg Allergy Diet for Children
  • Parents of children with egg sensitivity may not be aware of the variety of food products that contain eggs. That's why it's important to carefully read food labels.

  • Eisenmenger Syndrome
  • Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of pulmonary artery hypertension. In this condition, the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs narrow. This makes the pressure of blood flow against the walls of the arteries (blood pressure) too high. The heart must work harder to pump blood into the lungs. This causes lung damage. 

  • Electrocardiography in Children
  • Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it.

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children
  • An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain. An EEG measures brain waves through small button electrodes that are placed on your child's scalp.

  • Emergency Contact Information
  • In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.

  • Encephalitis in Children
  • Encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in the child's neurological condition, including mental confusion and seizures.

  • Encopresis
  • Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Children
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

  • Epiglottitis
  • Detailed information on epiglottitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Ewing Sarcoma in Children
  • Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

  • Exercise and Adolescents
  • Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

  • Exercise and Children
  • Exercise is an important part of keeping children healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and teens is important for when they grow older.

  • Eye Care/Avoiding Eye Injuries
  • Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.

  • Eye Exams and Visual Screening
  • At 6 months of age, an infant should have a vision screening during a well-baby visit. In particular, the healthcare provider should check how well the eyes work together.

  • Eye Protection Keeps Kids in the Game
  • The sports that cause the most injuries are basketball, baseball, pool sports, and racket sports. But any sport that involves a projectile is considered hazardous to the eyes.

  • Eye Trauma
  • Detailed information on eye trauma in children

  • Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses
  • A child who needs vision correction may wear eyeglasses or contact lenses. Either choice comes in a range of choices.

  • Eyelid Lacerations
  • Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid. They are caused by trauma.

  • Herpangina
  • Herpangina is an illness caused by a virus. Your child may have small bumps at the back of the throat or on the roof of the mouth. Your child may also have a high fever.

  • Medical Genetics: Chromosome Studies
  • When a chromosome is abnormal, it can cause health problems in the body. Tests called studies can look at chromosomes to see what type of problem a person has.

  • Nursemaid's Elbow
  • Nursemaid's elbow occurs when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

  • Seizures and Epilepsy in Children
  • A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography in Children
  • Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

  • Tympanostomy Tubes
  • Tympanostomy (ear) tubes are small tubes. They’re placed into your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes may be made of plastic, metal, or other material.

  • Urinary Incontinence in Children
  • Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting, or accidental urination in children who should be able to control their bladder. Girls usually have bladder control before boys do. The diagnosis of enuresis is for girls older than 5 and for boys older than 6.