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Health Library A to Z

G

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux
  • Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Reflux means to flow back or return.

  • Genetic Disorders Associated with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

  • Genetics
  • Genetics is the study of the patterns of inheritance - how traits and characteristics are passed from parents to their children.

  • Germ Cell Tumors in Children
  • Germ cells form as a baby grows in the womb. The cells usually form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. Germ cell tumors are made up of these underdeveloped cells. The tumors may be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign).

  • Gestational Age Assessment
  • It’s not always easy to tell a newborn’s age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That’s when doctors will perform a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

  • Glasses Can Help Even Young Children
  • Healthcare providers who specialize in children's eye care say children usually become near- or farsighted between ages 6 and 12. But even infants can wear glasses if they need help to see well.

  • Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty
  • Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

  • Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)
  • Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

  • Grief and Bereavement
  • The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.

  • Group B Streptococcus Infection in Newborns
  • Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mother's genital tract during delivery.

  • Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children
  • Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

  • Growth in Children
  • Detailed information on growth in children, including normal growth, newborn screening tests, growth problems, growth hormone deficiency, and achondroplasia

  • Growth Problems in Children
  • A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

  • Guidelines for Raising Smoke-Free Kids
  • The most important thing is to keep the lines of communication open -- the more you talk to your children, the better chance you have of staying close when things get tough or when important issues like smoking arise.

  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.

  • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM)
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital problem. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

  • Normal Growth
  • A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • The Growing Child: 10 to 12 Months
  • Your child can now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly two other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture such as shaking the head.

  • The Growing Child: 1-Year-Olds
  • Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

  • The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds
  • Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

  • The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds
  • Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

  • The Growing Child: Newborn
  • In the first month of life, babies usually catch up and surpass their birthweight, then steadily continue to gain weight.