Jump to:  A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J   |   K   |   L   |   M   |   N   |   O   |   P   |   Q   |   R   |   S   |   T   |   U   |   V   |   W   |   X   |   Y

Health Library A to Z

H

  • About the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

  • Blood in the Eye (Hyphema)
  • Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

  • Clubfoot
  • Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism in Children
  • Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Congenital hypothyroidism is when the disorder is present in a baby at birth. If not treated, it can lead to serious health problems.

  • Dialysis
  • Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

  • Have a Hazard-Free Halloween
  • Halloween safety begins at home, with the child's costume. Every part of the costume -- masks, beards, wigs and clothing -- should be made of flame-resistant material.

  • Head Injury in Children
  • The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

  • Head Lice
  • Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.

  • Headaches in Children
  • Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

  • Healthy Diets Overview
  • Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age.

  • Healthy Sleep Habits
  • The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

  • Hearing Aids for Children
  • Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve. Read on to learn about the types of hearing aids available, and what to consider before buying one.

  • Hearing Loss in Babies
  • Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

  • Hearing Loss in Children
  • Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.

  • Heart Disorders
  • Detailed information on heart disorders in high-risk newborns

  • Heart Failure in Children
  • Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

  • Heart Murmurs in Children
  • Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

  • Heart Transplant in Children
  • A heart transplant is a surgery to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from an organ donor. Organ donors are adults or children who have become critically ill, often because because of injury. They will not live because of their illness or injury.

  • Helicobacter Pylori in Children
  • H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a spiral-shaped germ (bacteria) that infects the stomach. It can damage the tissue in your child’s stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This can cause redness and swelling (inflammation). It may also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

  • Helping Kids Cope with a Divorce
  • Anger, fear, separation anxiety, a sense of abandonment, self-blame, sadness and embarrassment are common reactions to divorce for most children.

  • Helping Kids Get Over their Fears
  • Studies indicate that almost all children report having fears. Some of the most common fears are of bugs or ghosts, and studies have shown that kids are afraid of pretty much the same things no matter where they live in the world.

  • Helping Teens Embrace Self-Care
  • By involving teens as full participants in their self-care, they're more likely to choose healthy behaviors throughout their lives.

  • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM)
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, 1 side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects 1 side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

  • Hemolytic Anemia in Children
  • The hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can make them. The term for destruction of red blood cells is hemolysis.

  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis. 

  • Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children
  • An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

  • Hepatitis in Children
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.

  • Hepatoblastoma in Children
  • Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancer. It’s a tumor that starts in the liver. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It usually affects children less than 3 to 4 years of age.

  • Herpangina
  • Herpangina is an illness caused by a virus. Your child may have small bumps at the back of the throat or on the roof of the mouth. Your child may also have a high fever.

  • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents
  • Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

  • High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders
  • Detailed information on blood disorders that place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional

  • Hirschsprung Disease
  • Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

  • HIV Home Care
  • Detailed information on HIV home care for your child

  • HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy
  • A mother with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children
  • Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Holter Monitoring in Children
  • Holter monitoring is a way to continuously check the electrical activity of the heart. Your child will wear a small device called a Holter monitor for at least 24 to 48 hours. The device constantly checks your child's heart during this time.

  • Home Page - Adolescent Medicine
  • Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

  • Home Page - Burns
  • Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

  • Home Page - Craniofacial Anomalies
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

  • Home Page - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

  • Home Page - Medical Genetics
  • Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

  • Hospice
  • The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill child peace, comfort, and dignity.

  • How Old Is "Old Enough" for Contacts?
  • There are no set rules with children and lenses. Much depends on the responsibility level of the child. Children as young as 8 may do well with contact lenses, but there are some older teens who may be too immature to handle the responsibility.

  • How the Liver Works
  • Detailed information on how the liver works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system

  • How to Bathe Your Baby
  • As a new parent, you may find "tub time" a bit scary. Here are some suggestions on how to make it less stressful.

  • How to Comfort a Crying Baby
  • Some babies cry for long stretches at 3 and 12 weeks of age during steps in development when their sleep is less settled.

  • How to Quit Smoking, Again
  • Fewer than a quarter of those who attempt to quit are able to make it beyond three months before resuming smoking. Here are suggestions to help you kick the habit, again, for good.

  • How to Use a Pacifier
  • It seems everyone has an opinion about pacifiers. That’s because there are both advantages and disadvantages to using them. Get the full facts so you can make the right choice for your baby.

  • Hydrocele
  • Detailed information on hydrocele, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Hydrocephalus
  • A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around his or her brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid. It lives in fluid-filled areas (ventricles) of your child’s brain and spreads to the spinal cord.

  • Hydrops Fetalis
  • Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in the fetus or a newborn baby. It is a life-threatening problem. There are 2 types: immune and nonimmune.

  • Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn
  • Hyperbilirubinemia happens when there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. Bilirubin is made by the breakdown of red blood cells. It’s hard for babies to get rid of bilirubin. It can build up in their blood, tissues, and fluids.

  • Hypocalcemia in the Newborn
  • Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

  • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

  • Hypoglycemia in Children
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

  • Hypoparathyroidism in Children
  • Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

  • Hypopituitarism in Children
  • Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

  • Hypospadias
  • Hypospadias is a disorder in newborn boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis.

  • Management of Hearing Loss
  • A child's hearing loss may be helped with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Training in sign language and lip reading is another option.

  • Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
  • Detailed information on shingles, including symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and treatment

  • Styes in Children
  • A stye is an inflammation or infection of the eyelid margin. This condition is also called a hordeolum.

  • Treatment for Human Bites
  • Human bite wounds are more likely to become infected than dog or cat bites. A healthcare provider should check any human bite that breaks the skin.

  • Types of Hearing Tests for Infants and Children
  • One type of hearing screening test for newborns uses a tiny, flexible plug that is inserted into the baby's ear. The other type of test uses electrodes attached with adhesive to the baby's scalp.