Health Library A to Z
Congenital Limb Defects
Congenital limb defects happen when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally when the baby is developing in the uterus.
Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM)
Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, 1 side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects 1 side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.
Lacerations With Stitches
Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.
Lacerations Without Stitches
A laceration is tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.
Lactose Intolerance in Children
Lactose intolerance is when the body can’t easily break down or digest lactose. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk products.
Large for Gestational Age
Large for gestational age is used to describe newborn babies who weigh more than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. Babies are called large for gestational age if they weigh more than 9 in 10 babies of the same gestational age.
Lead Poisoning in Children
Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.
Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.
Leukemia in Children
Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood. The cancer cells grow in bone marrow and go into the blood.
A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area. This gives the child a "swayback" appearance.
Low Birth Weight
Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.
Lung Transplantation in Children
Detailed information on lung transplant, including why a lung transplant is recommended, what is involved in lung transplant surgery, and long-term outlook for a child after a lung transplant
Lying and Stealing
Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.
Lyme Disease in Children
Lyme disease is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the United States. It is a year-round problem, although it peaks during the spring and summer months.
Lymphadenopathy in Children
Lymphadenopathy is the term for swelling of the lymph nodes or glands. These are the bean-shaped glands in the neck, armpits, groin, chest, and abdomen. They act as filters for the lymph fluid as it flows through the body. Lymphadenopathy can occur in just one area of the body, such as the neck. Or it may affect lymph nodes throughout the body. The cervical lymph nodes, found in the neck, are the most common site of lymphadenopathy.
A lymphatic malformation is a lymphatic vessel that isn’t formed right. The malformations are lymphatic tissue filled with fluid (cyst). Your child may have one or more of these cysts.