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Health Library A to Z

M

  • Making Family Fitness Fun
  • Activity can help prevent heart disease, cancer, and stroke. It can also lessen feelings of depression, and boost confidence. As children get older, they often reduce their physical activity. Because of this, making activity a family priority is key.

  • Male Conditions
  • Detailed information on the most common male genitourinary conditions

  • Malocclusion in Children
  • Malocclusion is when a child’s teeth become crooked or crowded. The child may also have a problem with his or her bite. That means the teeth of the upper jaw don’t meet normally with the teeth of the lower jaw when the jaw is closed.

  • Marfan Syndrome in Children
  • Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue holds the body's cells, organs, and other tissue together. Connective tissue is also important in growth and development.

  • Mastoiditis in Children
  • Mastoiditis is an inflammation or infection of the mastoid bone. This bone is one of the bones in the head. It is located behind the ear. The mastoid bone is made of cells that drain the middle ear. Mastoiditis may be mild or very serious.

  • Measles (Rubeola) in Children
  • Measles (rubeola) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. It causes a red, blotchy rash. It’s a very contagious illness.

  • Meckel Diverticulum
  • Meckel diverticulum is a small pouch in the wall of the intestine. It’s near where the small and large intestines meet. This condition is the most common birth defect of the digestive system. It happens to about 1 in 50 babies.

  • Meconium Aspiration
  • Meconium aspiration happens when a newborn breathes in a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that surrounds the baby in the womb. Meconium is the baby's first stool, or poop, which is sticky, thick, and dark green. It is typically passed in the womb during early pregnancy and again in the first few days after birth.

  • Medical Genetics: Chromosome Studies
  • When a chromosome is abnormal, it can cause health problems in the body. Tests called studies can look at chromosomes to see what type of problem a person has.

  • Medical Genetics: Multifactorial Inheritance
  • Multifactorial inheritance is when more than one factor causes a trait or health condition, such as a birth defect or chronic illness. The main factor is genes. But the cause includes other factors that aren’t genes.

  • Medical Genetics: Teratogens
  • A teratogen is something that can cause or raise the risk for a birth defect in a baby. They are things that a mother may be exposed to during her pregnancy.

  • Medicine Rashes in Children
  • Medicine rashes are the body’s reaction to a certain medicine. The type of rash that occurs depends on the type of medicine that is causing it. Rashes can range from mild to severe.

  • Megaloblastic Anemia in Children
  • Anemia is a problem in which there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In megaloblastic anemia, the bone marrow, where the cells are formed, makes fewer cells. And the cells that are formed don’t live as long as normal.

  • Megaureter in Children
  • Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A ureter that is wider than 10 mm (3/8 inch) is a megaureter. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.

  • Meningitis in Children
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.

  • Meningococcal Infections in Children
  • Meningococcal infections are not common, but they can be fatal. They occur most often in late winter and early spring. Children are more often affected, but the illnesses also occur in teens and adults.

  • Menstrual Disorders
  • Detailed information on the most common menstrual conditions, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia

  • Metatarsus Adductus in Children
  • Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth. It causes the front half of the child’s foot (forefoot) to turn inward.

  • Microcephaly
  • An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.

  • Micropenis in Children
  • A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 1.9 cm (0.75 inches) is considered micropenis.

  • Milk Allergy Diet for Children
  • The words "non-dairy" on a product label mean that it does not contain butter, cream, or milk—but it could still contain other types of milk products.

  • Minor Injuries Overview
  • Children's days are filled with running, jumping, bicycling, sports, and other fun activities that keep them active and "on-the-go" from morning until night. Along with the fun comes an occasional cut, bruise, or tumble. Luckily, most of these injuries are not serious.

  • Mold
  • Detailed information on mold allergy, including potential sources of mold inside and outside the home

  • Molluscum Contagiosum in Children
  • Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin disease that causes small pink or skin-colored bumps on your child’s skin. It is not harmful and usually does not have any other symptoms. The virus is inside the bumps and is mildly contagious. These bumps usually clear over time.

  • More Teen Dads?
  • Report finds number of teen moms stays stable while it goes up for males

  • Mosaic Down Syndrome
  • Detailed information on mosaic Down syndrome, including the chances for it to happen again in a family

  • Motor Vehicle Safety Overview
  • Detailed information on motor vehicle safety, including installing and using child safety seats and booster seats

  • Mouthguards
  • Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

  • Moving Your Toddler from Crib to Bed
  • Moving your child from the crib to a first bed is a milestone event. But more than the bittersweet emotional concerns, your priorities will be safety and a healthy sleep routine.

  • Mumps in Children
  • Mumps is a very contagious viral illness that infects the pair of salivary glands in front of the ears. Cases of mumps in the U.S. happen much less often since the mumps vaccine has been used.

  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

  • Myasthenia Gravis in Children
  • Myasthenia gravis is a complex, autoimmune disorder that causes problems with the nerves that communicate with muscles, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles.

  • Newborn Measurements
  • Your newborn will be weighed in the hospital and at all check-ups. In most cases, metric units are used to record babies' weight. This chart will help you convert the metric unit grams (g) to pounds (lb) and ounces (oz).

  • Tympanostomy Tubes
  • Tympanostomy (ear) tubes are small tubes. They’re placed into your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes may be made of plastic, metal, or other material.

  • Weight Management and Adolescents
  • For overweight children 7 and older, the initial goal is to keep them from gaining more weight. Changes in eating habits and exercise are gradually introduced to trim pounds.