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Health Library A to Z

N

  • Apnea of Prematurity
  • It’s a cliché that many new parents need to reassure themselves that the baby is still breathing. But what if your baby really is having breathing problems? A breathing condition called apnea of prematurity affects some babies, especially if they’re born early. But you can learn what symptoms to look for.

  • Cuts and Wounds of the Nose
  • Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes requires immediate medical attention.

  • Gastrointestinal Problems
  • If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

  • Getting Ready at Home
  • Newborns need just some basic items at first—a warm and safe place to sleep, food, clothing, and diapers.

  • Hernia (Umbilical/Inguinal)
  • A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. In babies, this usually occurs around the navel or in the groin area.

  • Intravenous Line and Tubes
  • Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medications and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries.

  • Natal Teeth
  • Natal teeth are teeth that are present when the infant is born. They are usually the infant's primary teeth (or baby teeth) that have come in early.

  • Neck Abscess
  • Detailed information on neck abscess, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Neck Masses
  • Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis
  • This condition appears to develop when the intestines are weakened by too little oxygen or blood. The weakened tissues can become severely damaged and die, which causes a hole in the intestinal wall.

  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome is a term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics.

  • Neuroblastoma
  • Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children
  • Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

  • Neurogenic Bladder in Children
  • In children a neurogenic bladder may be secondary to a birth defect such as spina bifida or it may be acquired as the result of a different problem.

  • Neurological Examination for Children
  • Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

  • New Parents...Sore Backs
  • When it comes to parenting, back injury is an occupational hazard. New mothers, whose backs have just endured the stresses of pregnancy and birth, are particularly vulnerable. So are taller fathers and mothers who must bend farther than others to scoop up tots from playpens.

  • Newborn Appearance
  • A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Newborn Immunizations
  • Your newborn is fragile and needs protection from the new world. One of the first steps you can take to protect your baby is to get her vaccinated. Learn about the first scheduled immunization—the hepatitis B vaccine—and how it keeps your baby safe from serious illness.

  • Newborn Multiples
  • Because many multiples are small and born early, they may be initially cared for in a special care nursery called the neonatal intensive care unit.

  • Newborn Warning Signs
  • Warning signs that may indicate a possible problem in your newborn include no urine in the first 24 hours at home; a rectal temperature of 100.4 degrees or higher; or a rapid breathing rate.

  • Newborn-Reflexes
  • Ever wonder why your baby flings his arms out sideways when startled? This reaction—called the Moro reflex—is one of many natural reflexes your newborn should exhibit. Read on to learn about common newborn reflexes and what they mean.

  • Newborn-Senses
  • Babies are born with the ability to focus only at close range—about eight to 10 inches, or the distance between a mother's face to the baby in her arms.

  • Newborn-Sleep Patterns
  • You’ve spent nine months doing everything to ensure your baby arrives healthy. Now that your baby is here, you have another important decision to make: Finding pediatrician that is right for you and your baby.

  • Nightmares and Night Terrors
  • A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

  • Noninfectious Skin Conditions
  • Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

  • Nontraditional Inheritance
  • Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

  • Normal Breast Development
  • Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Normal Growth
  • A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • Nosebleeds
  • Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

  • Nursing Bottle Caries
  • Did you know that babies can get cavities? They can—usually when they go to bed with a bottle filled with milk or juice. Find out how to prevent this type of tooth decay, which is also called nursing bottle caries.

  • Nutrition and Burns
  • A child who has been burned needs additional calories and protein to help him or her heal and grow.

  • Nutrition and Fluids
  • When your baby is in the neonatal intensive care unit, your main concern is getting her healthy and home. Taking food by the mouth and gaining weight are two important steps toward that goal. Find out what happens to help your baby get there, including the role you play.

  • Nutrition Index
  • Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

  • Overview of Newborn Screening for Birth Defects
  • Every state requires newborn babies to be screened for birth defects that may not be apparent from a physical exam. Generally, the baby’s heel is pricked to draw a blood sample soon after birth. Here is what is done with your baby’s blood.

  • Preparing the Family
  • Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

  • Procedures and Equipment in NICU
  • NICUs are equipped with complex machines and devices to monitor nearly every system of a baby's body—temperature, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and blood pressure.

  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • This disease is one of the most common problems of premature babies. It can cause babies to need extra oxygen and help in breathing.

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
  • Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.

  • Warmth and Temperature Regulation
  • Premature and low birthweight babies may be too immature to regulate their own temperature, even in a warm environment. Even full-term and healthy newborns may not be able to maintain their body temperature if the environment is too cold.