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Health Library A to Z

N

  • Apnea of Prematurity
  • It’s a cliché that many new parents need to reassure themselves that the baby is still breathing. But what if your baby really is having breathing problems? A breathing condition called apnea of prematurity affects some babies, especially if they’re born early. But you can learn what symptoms to look for.

  • Cuts and Wounds of the Nose
  • Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes requires immediate medical attention.

  • Gastrointestinal Problems
  • If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

  • Getting Ready at Home
  • Newborns need just some basic items at first—a warm and safe place to sleep, food, clothing, and diapers.

  • Hernia (Umbilical/Inguinal)
  • A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. In babies, this usually occurs around the navel or in the groin area.

  • Intravenous Line and Tubes
  • Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medications and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries.

  • Natal Teeth
  • Natal teeth are teeth that are present when the infant is born. They are usually the infant's primary teeth (or baby teeth) that have come in early.

  • Neck Masses
  • Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Newborn
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness in newborns. It happens when tissue in the large intestine (colon) gets inflamed. This inflammation damages and sometimes kills the tissue in your baby’s colon.

  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome is what happens when babies are exposed to drugs in the womb before birth. Babies can then go through drug withdrawal after birth. 

  • Neuroblastoma
  • Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in babies under age 1. It’s rare in children older than age 10.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children
  • Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

  • Neurogenic Bladder in Children
  • In children a neurogenic bladder may be secondary to a birth defect such as spina bifida or it may be acquired as the result of a different problem.

  • Neurological Exam for Children
  • Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

  • Newborn Appearance
  • A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health.

  • Newborn Crying
  • Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Newborn Immunizations
  • Your newborn is fragile and needs protection from the new world. One of the first steps you can take to protect your baby is to get her vaccinated. Learn about the first scheduled immunization—the hepatitis B vaccine—and how it keeps your baby safe from serious illness.

  • Newborn Multiples
  • Because many multiples are small and born early, they may be initially cared for in a special care nursery called the neonatal intensive care unit.

  • Newborn Senses
  • Babies are born with the ability to focus only at close range—about eight to 10 inches, or the distance between a mother's face to the baby in her arms.

  • Newborn Warning Signs
  • Warning signs that may indicate a possible problem in your newborn include no urine in the first 24 hours at home; a rectal temperature of 100.4 degrees or higher; or a rapid breathing rate.

  • Newborn-Reflexes
  • Ever wonder why your baby flings his arms out sideways when startled? This reaction—called the Moro reflex—is one of many natural reflexes your newborn should exhibit. Read on to learn about common newborn reflexes and what they mean.

  • Newborn-Sleep Patterns
  • You’ve spent nine months doing everything to ensure your baby arrives healthy. Now that your baby is here, you have another important decision to make: Finding pediatrician that is right for you and your baby.

  • Nightmares and Night Terrors
  • A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Children
  • NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Noninfectious Skin Conditions
  • Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

  • Nontraditional Inheritance
  • Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

  • Normal Breast Development
  • Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Normal Growth
  • A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • Nosebleeds
  • Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

  • Nutrition and Burns
  • A child who has been burned needs additional calories and protein to help him or her heal and grow.

  • Nutrition and Fluids
  • When your baby is in the neonatal intensive care unit, your main concern is getting her healthy and home. Taking food by the mouth and gaining weight are two important steps toward that goal. Find out what happens to help your baby get there, including the role you play.

  • Nutrition Index
  • Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

  • Preparing the Family
  • Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

  • Procedures and Equipment in NICU
  • NICUs are equipped with complex machines and devices to monitor nearly every system of a baby's body—temperature, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and blood pressure.

  • Warmth and Temperature Regulation
  • Premature and low birthweight babies may be too immature to regulate their own temperature, even in a warm environment. Even full-term and healthy newborns may not be able to maintain their body temperature if the environment is too cold.