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Health Library A to Z

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  • Cuts and Wounds of the Nose
  • Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes needs immediate medical attention.

  • Fever in A Newborn
  • The system that controls body temperature is not well developed in a newborn. Here's what you need to know about fever and your baby.

  • Gastrointestinal Problems
  • If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

  • Intravenous Line and Tubes
  • Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medicines and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries.

  • Natal Teeth
  • Natal teeth are teeth that are present when the infant is born. They are usually the infant's primary teeth (or baby teeth) that have come in early.

  • Neck Masses
  • Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Newborn
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness in newborns. It happens when tissue in the large intestine (colon) gets inflamed. This inflammation damages and sometimes kills the tissue in your baby’s colon.

  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome is what happens when babies are exposed to drugs in the womb before birth. Babies can then go through drug withdrawal after birth. 

  • Neuroblastoma
  • Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in babies under age 1. It’s rare in children older than age 10.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children
  • Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

  • Neurological Exam for Children
  • Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

  • Newborn Immunizations
  • Your newborn is fragile and needs protection from the new world. One of the first steps you can take to protect your baby is to get her vaccinated. Learn about the first scheduled immunization—the hepatitis B vaccine—and how it keeps your baby safe from serious illness.

  • Newborn Measurements
  • Your newborn will be weighed in the hospital and at all check-ups. In most cases, metric units are used to record babies' weight. This chart will help you convert the metric unit grams (g) to pounds (lb) and ounces (oz).

  • Newborn Multiples
  • Because many multiples are small and born early, they may be initially cared for in a special care nursery called the neonatal intensive care unit.

  • Newborn Screening Tests
  • A national program exists to screen all newborns for certain disorders within the first few days of life.

  • Nightmares and Night Terrors
  • A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Children
  • NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Noninfectious Skin Conditions
  • Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

  • Nontraditional Inheritance
  • Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

  • Normal Breast Development
  • Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Normal Growth
  • A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • Nosebleeds
  • Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

  • Nutrition and Burns
  • A child who has been burned needs additional calories and protein to help him or her heal and grow.

  • Nutrition Index
  • Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

  • Physical Exam of the Newborn
  • A complete physical exam is an important part of newborn care. Each body system is carefully checked for signs of health and normal function.

  • Preparing the Family
  • Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

  • Procedures and Equipment in NICU
  • NICUs are equipped with complex machines and devices to monitor nearly every system of a baby's body—temperature, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and blood pressure.

  • School-Aged Child Nutrition
  • Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

  • Sepsis in the Newborn
  • Newborn sepsis is a severe infection in an infant less than 28 days old. The infection is in your baby’s blood, but it may affect any body system or the whole body.

  • Toddler Nutrition
  • Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

  • Warmth and Temperature Regulation
  • Premature and low birthweight babies may be too immature to regulate their own temperature, even in a warm environment. Even full-term and healthy newborns may not be able to maintain their body temperature if the environment is too cold.