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Health Library A to Z

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  • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM)
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital problem. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

  • Obesity in Adolescents
  • Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages.

  • Old Makeup Can Cause Serious Eye Infections
  • Most cosmetics have long shelf lives, but since they can be contaminated with bacteria after only one use, it is a good idea to keep track of how long you have been using products, such as mascara and eyeliners.

  • Omphalocele
  • An omphalocele is a birth defect. It happens when your baby is forming during pregnancy. In this condition, some of your baby’s abdominal organs poke out (protrude) through an opening in the abdominal muscles. This area is in the umbilical cord. A clear (translucent) membrane covers the organs.

  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  • This behavior disorder is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.

  • Oral Health
  • Detailed information on oral health problems and teens

  • Orthodontics/Braces for Children
  • Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

  • Osteomyelitis in Children
  • Acute osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone. It develops over a short time, usually about 2 weeks. In children, osteomyelitis is more common in the long bones of the arms and legs. But it can affect any bone in the body. Osteomyelitis can happen in children of any age. About half of the time, it occurs in children under 5 years of age.

  • Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma) in Children
  • Osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. The cancer (malignant) cells make immature bone cells (osteoid). Osteosarcoma is rare, but it is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. It is most common when teens have growth spurts. That is between the ages of 13 and 16.

  • Otitis Media in Children
  • Otitis media is inflammation or infection in the middle ear. It’s very common in babies and children.

  • Overactive Adrenal Glands in Children
  • Adrenal glands make a series of hormones. The hormones are androgens, corticosteroids, and aldosterone. Overactive adrenal glands make too much of one or more of these hormones. This can cause health problems. The health problems vary depending on which hormones are in excess. For example, too much aldosterone can caused high blood pressure and low levels of potassium.

  • Overuse Injuries
  • Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

  • Overview of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes is a chronic disease that involves the regulation of blood sugar and occurs in two different forms, type 1 and type 2.