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Health Library A to Z

S

  • Aphthous Stomatitis
  • Detailed information on aphthous stomatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Chalazion
  • Detailed information on chalazion, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Crossed-Eyes (Strabismus)
  • A child with strabismus has one or both eyes that turn inward, outward, up, or down. At times, more than one of these conditions are present.

  • Group B Streptococcus
  • You’ve probably never heard of group B streptococcus. That’s because you didn’t need to before you were pregnant. This bacterium generally doesn’t cause problems for healthy nonpregnant women. But it can cause illness in pregnant women and their babies. Here’s what you need to know.

  • Hospital Visit / Preoperative Clinic
  • Touring the hospital before surgery can help your child see the sights, sounds, and events he or she will experience the day of surgery. It is a non-threatening, often reassuring, way to learn about the hospital.

  • Informed Consent
  • You will be asked to sign an informed consent form which states in detail that you understand the risks and benefits of your child's surgery.

  • Installing and Using Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats
  • As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

  • Intensive Care
  • Intensive care is needed for children who have had certain types of major surgery: heart operations, organ transplants, or neurosurgery.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Detailed information on obstructive sleep apnea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Otitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)
  • Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria that are encouraged to grow because of water that remains trapped in the ear canal after swimming.

  • Preoperative Visit with the Surgeon
  • This is the time to ask questions: What are the expected results? What are the possible risks and complications? How long will the surgery take?

  • Preparing Siblings for Surgery
  • When your child goes to the hospital, brothers and sisters may feel afraid, worried, or confused. They are often afraid simply because they do not know what to expect, and they may imagine the worst.

  • Preparing the Preschooler for Surgery
  • One of the major fears preschoolers have is fear of the unknown. Tell your child about the surgery several days before the procedure and perhaps even visit the hospital for a tour.

  • Preparing the Teenager for Surgery
  • Allow your teen to be part of the decision-making process. Encourage him or her to make a list of questions to ask the doctors and nurses.

  • Safer Sex Guidelines for Adolescents
  • The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

  • Safety for Snow Sports
  • Whether you're heading for the mountain to ski or just taking your sled to the hill, you can enjoy a great day out and get some exercise at the same time.

  • Safety Precautions for Kids in Cars
  • Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of childhood death in the United States. But when properly installed and used, child safety seats reduce the risk of death by 70 percent for infants and 55 percent for toddlers.

  • Save That Tooth!
  • If your child gets a tooth knocked out, find it if you can and treat it with care. See your dentist as soon as possible.

  • Scabies in Children
  • Detailed information on scabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Scarlet Fever
  • Detailed information on scarlet fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Schizophrenia in Children
  • Detailed information on schizophrenia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • School Refusal
  • School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents.

  • School-Aged Child Nutrition
  • Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

  • Scoliosis in Children
  • Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Sealants
  • Dental sealants are thin, plastic films painted on the chewing surfaces of the molars and premolars. They are highly effective in preventing tooth decay.

  • Sepsis
  • Sepsis is a term for severe infection that spreads throughout the body. Sepsis in a newborn is more likely to develop when the mother has had pregnancy complications that increase the likelihood of infection.

  • Sinusitis in Children
  • Detailed information on sinusitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Skin Cancer in Children
  • Detailed information on skin cancer, including causes, types, risk factors, and prevention

  • Skin Color Changes
  • The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. It is important for you to call your doctor if certain skin color changes occur.

  • Sleep
  • Detailed information on healthy sleep habits of children, including information on nightmares and night terrors

  • Sleep and Your Child
  • Without enough shut-eye, children are more likely to struggle with their school studies, do poorly on the playing field, and suffer depression.

  • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain
  • Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

  • Small for Gestational Age
  • Although some babies are small because of genetics (their parents are small), most SGA babies are small because of fetal growth problems that occur during pregnancy.

  • Smile! Are You Eating Healthy?
  • If you're not eating right, you may be at risk for problems with your teeth and mouth. Bad eating habits can cause tooth decay and gum disease.

  • Smoking
  • Ninety percent of new smokers are children and teenagers. In many cases, they are replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease.

  • Snake Bites and Children
  • Treat all bites as if they were from a venomous snake and get your child to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible.

  • Solving Battles at Mealtime
  • Pediatricians say there are easy and effective ways to get your kids to eat well other than playing the food enforcer. Parents need to avoid the bickering and control games that make meals tense and unappetizing.

  • Sound Advice for MP3 Users
  • Experts say today's small music players pose a big risk of hearing loss. One reason: The "earbuds" used with iPods and other MP3 players fit into the ears, not over them.

  • Soy Allergy Diet for Children
  • Detailed information on soy allergy, a type of food allergy, including how to read a label for a soy-free diet and other potential sources of soy or soy product

  • Spider Bites in Children
  • In the United States, two spiders that can cause serious problems are the black widow and the brown recluse spiders. Both of these spiders are found in warm climates.

  • Spina Bifida
  • Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

  • Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture
  • A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal and/or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid for testing.

  • Splinters
  • A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home.

  • Sports and Music: Both Good for Kids
  • Organized sports for children offer obvious benefits such as physical fitness and sportsmanship, but did you know that a musical education program has many of the same benefits? Music education and participation in sports are both great ways to prepare your child for future success.

  • Sports Eye Safety Is No Game
  • Sports is the leading cause of school-age children's eye injuries, but most of those injuries are preventable.

  • Sports Injuries and Children
  • Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

  • Sports Safety for Children
  • Because they are still growing, children are more susceptible to sports injuries. Half of those injuries could be prevented with proper safety gear, safer playing environments, and established safety rules.

  • Sports Safety--Prevention
  • Safety gear should be sport-specific and may include such items as goggles, mouthguards, shin-elbow-knee pads, and helmets. The safety gear worn by a child should fit properly.

  • Sprains and Strains in Children
  • Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.

  • Stages of Play
  • Children go through distinct stages of play as they grow. Each stage is critically important to the development of the next.

  • Stop Dating Abuse Before It Starts
  • Although teen dating violence is worrisome, it's not inevitable. You and your teen can avoid potentially perilous situations and reduce the risk for problems.

  • Strengthening Exercises for Kids
  • . Stronger muscles can help prevent injury or make it easier to recover from injury. They can help a person keep a good level of body fat. Activities that build bone are especially important for children.

  • Stridor
  • Detailed information on stridor, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Stuttering
  • Stuttering may occur in a child with normal developmental speech problems who is pressured to speak better. The child's struggle to improve speech actually makes the problem worse.

  • Stye (Hordeolum)
  • A stye is caused by an infection in the oil-producing or sweat glands in the eyelid. The infection is usually caused by bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus.

  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome. It is a leading cause of infant death in the U.S. The causes of SIDS are unknown, but researchers have learned more about factors that can put your baby at risk. Learn which ones parents can prevent.

  • Sunburn and Children
  • Protect your child from the sun. Up to 80 percent of total lifetime sun exposure occurs in the first 18 years of life.

  • Syncope
  • Detailed information on syncope, also called fainting, including causes, symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information

  • Thumb Sucking
  • Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

  • Types of Surgery for Children
  • Surgery can be classified as major or minor, depending on the seriousness of the illness, the parts of the body affected, the complexity of the operation, and the expected recovery time.