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Health Library A to Z

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  • Asthma Triggers
  • Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.

  • Injuries to the Teeth
  • The injury may be to a primary tooth or a permanent tooth. A tooth can be cracked, chipped, or totally detached from its socket.

  • Recognizing Urologic or Gynecologic Problems
  • Vaginal bleeding and discharge are a normal part of a teen girl's menstrual cycle. If your daughter notices anything different or unusual, talk with your teen's health care provider.

  • Tackling Kids' Sports Injuries
  • Enroll your child in organized sports groups or clubs that demonstrate a commitment to injury prevention. Coaches should be trained in first aid and insist on proper use of safety equipment.

  • Take a Hard Line Against Soft Drinks
  • Kids who drink soda tend to eat fewer fruits and vegetables, and get less calcium, protein and vitamins A and D, because they are drinking less milk. They also take in more calories.

  • Taking Baby's Temperature
  • For a parent who needs to take an infant's or child's temperature, there are now three digital options.

  • Taking Your Baby Home
  • Your baby is finally ready to come home. Turn your nervous energy into positive action. Make a checklist for what you and she needs before leaving the hospital so that you can create a safe home environment. Here’s a list of items to get you started.

  • Talk With Your Kids About These Issues
  • Talking with your child about drugs, alcohol and tobacco is tough. But you can't afford to ignore these topics. Children learn about these substances and feel pressure to use them at a very young age.

  • Talking Sex with Your Teen
  • With studies showing that more than half of America's teenagers have experienced sexual intercourse by the age of 18, educating kids about sex is something all parents need to do.

  • Teach Teens to Stretch
  • An adolescent athlete can never stretch too much, experts say. Stretching to stay flexible is vital -- particularly when a child reaches puberty and goes through a growth spurt.

  • Teach the Joy of Gift Giving
  • Here are some ideas: Adopt a family in need for the holidays. Encourage your child to pass on toys he or she has outgrown.

  • Teaching Children Good Sportsmanship
  • Good sportsmanship is one of the life lessons that children can learn from sports. Its hallmarks include being able to win without gloating, respecting one’s opponents, and being able to lose gracefully.

  • Teaching Kids to Wash Their Hands
  • It's hard enough to get grownups to wash up. Only two-thirds of adults wash their hands after they use the restroom, studies show.

  • Teaching Your Child to Ride a Bike
  • You may have learned to ride a bike with your mom or dad running alongside to keep you from falling. That method still works, but there's an alterative that separates learning to balance from the other skills needed to ride.

  • Teen Suicide
  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15- to 24-year-olds. The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are depression, substance abuse, and aggressive or disruptive behaviors.

  • Teenage Drivers
  • Detailed information on teen driving, including safety tips

  • Teens and Prescription Drugs
  • Many young people take prescription drugs because they believe they are safer than street drugs, but they can be just as dangerous if taken improperly.

  • Teens and Talk: What's a Parent to Do?
  • At the parent-teen communication gap, a simple parent-child conversation just isn't simple anymore. That's because when kids get to be teenagers they think differently than children.

  • Teens and the Self-Esteem Shield
  • Research shows that adolescents who grow up with high self-esteem are far less likely to abuse drugs or drink, compared with children who grow up without much sense of self-worth.

  • Teething
  • A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

  • Television and Children
  • Detailed information on television and children, including suggestions for helping set good television viewing habits

  • Temper Tantrums
  • These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often occur only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

  • Tennis Elbow
  • Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that occurs when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

  • Testicular Torsion
  • Detailed information on testicular torsion, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Tetanus in Children
  • Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound.

  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.

  • Thalassemia
  • Detailed information on thalassemias, including alpha thalassemia, beta thalassemia (Cooley's anemia)

  • The Benefits of Mother's Own Milk
  • Premature babies who receive their own mothers' milk develop better eye function. They, and other high-risk babies fed mothers' milk, usually perform better on different kinds of intelligence tests as they grow older.

  • The Craniofacial Team
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies and the craniofacial anomaly treatment team

  • The Dangers of Binge Drinking
  • Too many young people are participating in a dangerous practice called binge drinking, or drinking to intoxication. It's defined as having five or more drinks in a row for men; for women, it’s four-plus drinks in a row.

  • The Day of Surgery
  • Before coming to the hospital, remove any watches, necklaces, or earrings that your child wears and leave them at home so they are not misplaced.

  • The Do's and Don’ts for Children's Meds
  • There are some simple rules for using over-the-counter (OTC) medicines for children. The first and most important: NEVER give any OTC medicine to children 2 years and under without a doctor's advice, says the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  • The Dying Process
  • Understanding the physical and mental changes the body goes through as death occurs, may help alleviate some fears and misconceptions about death.

  • The Facts About Marijuana
  • Knowing about marijuana can help you recognize its use in children and others and help a user seek treatment.

  • The Hospital Setting
  • Many surgeries performed on children are done as an outpatient. With minor surgeries, your child will return to the outpatient surgery center after spending the required time in the recovery room.

  • The Human Genome Project
  • Detailed information on the Human Genome Project how it relates to the identification and treatment of cancer

  • The Kidneys
  • Detailed anatomical description of the kidneys

  • The Liver
  • Detailed anatomical description of the liver and liver transplantation in children

  • The Lungs
  • Detailed anatomical description of the lungs and lung transplantation in children

  • The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
  • NICUs provide specialized care for the tiniest patients. NICUs may also have intermediate or continuing care areas for babies who are not as sick but do need specialized nursing care.

  • The Operating Room
  • Your child will need to know that people in the operating room will be wearing surgical clothes to help prevent germs from infecting the surgical incision.

  • The Respiratory System in Babies
  • By about 35 weeks gestation, most babies have developed adequate amounts of surfactant, a substance normally released into the lung tissues to lower surface tension in the airways. This helps keep the air sacs in the lung open.

  • The Road to Table Food
  • At the beginning of your baby’s life, milk was the only thing she needed to grow. Now she’s grown by leaps and bounds and even has teeth! You may be wondering how to introduce her to solid foods. Here’s a guide to how and when to introduce her to new foods.

  • The Skinny on Skin
  • The skin is your body's largest organ. It protects you against bacteria, viruses, dirt, wind, heat and cold. And it serves as a "window" to the body, alerting doctors when something is wrong.

  • The 'Soft Teeth' Myth
  • Children who inherit the family trait of cavities don’t have “soft teeth,” as many people suspect. Instead, a mother’s dental history may be to blame. But with the right habits, you can help prevent cavities in your little one.

  • The Supermarket as Classroom
  • Walking the aisles, you can talk about making wholesome food choices, show how ads drive purchases, and expose your child to new fruits and vegetables.

  • The Surgical Team for Children
  • Most surgical teams include a surgeon, an anesthesiologist, a nurse anesthetist, and an operating room nurse. The number of team members differs depending on the type of surgery performed.

  • The Trouble with Bullies
  • Bullying comes in different forms. It is commonly thought of as an actual or threatened act of physical violence. But name calling, spreading rumors, unrelenting teasing, and deliberately excluding a child from an activity can be other forms of bullying. Racial slurs, mocking cultural traditions, and unwanted physical contact are bullying.

  • Third-Degree Burns
  • This type of burn destroys the top two layers of skin. Treatment for third-degree burns depends on the amount of body surface area affected.

  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which a baby has too few platelets—the blood cells needed for clotting.

  • Thrush
  • Thrush is a yeast infection in the mouth and throat of babies. Babies usually contract the organism from the mother's body during delivery and may develop thrush as early as 2 weeks old.

  • Thumb Sucking
  • Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

  • Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
  • Detailed information on thyroglossal duct cyst, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Tibial Torsion
  • Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward, or to have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance.

  • Tick Bite Diseases
  • Ticks feed on human blood. Most tick bites are harmless, but some species can cause serious diseases.

  • Tick Bites
  • Ticks attach themselves to the scalp, behind the ear, in the armpit and groin, and also between fingers and toes. Tick bites often occur at night and are more common in the spring and summer months.

  • Tilt Table Evaluation
  • Detailed information on tilt table testing, also called upright tilt testing, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

  • Toddler
  • Detailed information on toddler health

  • Toddler Nutrition
  • Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

  • Toddler Play
  • Ideas for toddler toys: a rocking horse, a shovel and a bucket, and toys that can be pushed or pulled.

  • Too Much Juice?
  • Fruit juice contains a lot of natural sugar, so drinking too much can cause obesity, stunted growth, digestive problems and tooth decay.

  • Toothache (Pulpitis)
  • Detailed information on toothache, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Topic Index - Adolescent Medicine
  • Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

  • Topic Index - Burns
  • Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

  • Topic Index - Craniofacial Anomalies
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

  • Topic Index - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

  • Topic Index - Medical Genetics
  • Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

  • Tote Your Baby in a Sling — Safely
  • Slings are a popular, natural way to carry your baby, but recent government warnings showed these slings can also be dangerous. Learn how to carry your baby safely.

  • Tourette's Disorder
  • A person with Tourette's disorder develops multiple repeated tics. The tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks.

  • Toy Safety
  • Detailed information on toy safety and injury prevention in children

  • Toy Safety--Prevention
  • To make sure a toy is appropriate for your young child, check the label. In general, most toys on the market today are safe.

  • Trampoline Troubles
  • Trampolines are popular. Thousands of children are rocketing skyward, and trampoline injuries are also on the rise.

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography
  • Detailed information on transesophageal echocardiography, also called TEE or heart scan with endoscopy, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
  • Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.

  • Translocations
  • Detailed information on chromosome translocations, including reciprocal translation and Robertsonian translocation

  • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)
  • Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.

  • Trauma
  • Detailed information on neurological trauma in children

  • Treating Teen Acne
  • Just about every teen will find at least one blackhead or whitehead on his or her skin by age 17, and some teens will develop more severe acne, which can leave scarring if not treated.

  • Tricuspid Atresia (TA)
  • In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.

  • Trisomy 18 and 13
  • Trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 are genetic disorders that present a combination of birth defects including severe mental retardation, as well as health problems involving nearly every organ system in the body.

  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.

  • Turner Syndrome
  • Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder seen in girls that causes them to be shorter than others and to not mature sexually as they grow into adulthood.

  • TV vs. Activity: Key Choice for Kids
  • New studies show that a sedentary child will likely become a sedentary adult, and a sedentary life leads to a host of health problems, from obesity to heart disease.

  • Tympanostomy Tubes
  • Detailed information on tympanostomy tubes, including risks and benefits