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Health Library A to Z

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  • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome in Children
  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder that can cause many health problems. These problems may range from heart defects and developmental delays to seizures.

  • Normal Vision
  • Light enters the eye through the cornea and passes through the pupil. It then hits the lens. This focuses the light rays on the retina. The optic nerve carries the image from the retina to the brain.

  • Problems with Vision
  • Eye disorders in children are either refractive or nonrefractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Nonrefractive errors are caused by disease.

  • Tympanostomy Tubes for Children
  • Tympanostomy (ear) tubes are small tubes. They’re placed into your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes may be made of plastic, metal, or other material.

  • Vaginitis in Adolescents
  • Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

  • Vaping and E-Cigarettes
  • More people are lighting up with electronic cigarettes. Unlike regular cigarettes, these devices deliver nicotine without all the smoke. But are they safer? Learn what’s known about e-cigarettes and vaping.

  • Varicella and Pregnancy
  • Did you have chickenpox as a child? Then you’ve got nothing to worry about from varicella. But if you didn’t, you may not be immune to this infectious disease that can cause complications for a pregnant woman and her baby. Read more to find out why and how to protect yourself.

  • Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas
  • Hemangiomas are growths of blood vessels. They’re also called birthmarks. But they often can't be seen at birth. They usually form in the first few weeks of life.

  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. A VSD is an opening or hole in the dividing wall (septum) between the 2 lower chambers of the heart (right and left ventricles). VSDs are the most common type of congenital heart defect.

  • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Children
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a condition where urine in the bladder flows in the wrong direction. It goes up into the tubes (ureters) that lead to the kidneys.

  • Viral Skin Infections
  • Detailed information on viral skin infections, including Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Pityriasis Rosea, Warts, and Molluscum Contagiosum

  • Vision
  • Detailed information on children with vision problems

  • Vulvitis in Teens
  • Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. It is a symptom of a host of diseases, infections, injuries, and allergies.