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Health Library A to Z

H

  • About the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

  • Blood in the Eye (Hyphema) in Children
  • Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This is located between the clear front part of the eye (cornea) and the colored part of the eye (iris). This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

  • Contact Lens Safety Tips
  • If you wear contact lenses, it's important to follow your eye care provider's instructions on wearing and disinfecting them.

  • Dialysis
  • Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

  • Glasses Can Help Even Young Children
  • Healthcare providers who specialize in children's eye care say children usually become nearsighted or farsighted between ages 6 and 12. But even infants can wear glasses if they need help to see well.

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Infections in Children
  • Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a group of bacteria that can cause different types of infections in babies and children. H. influenzae most often cause ear, eye, or sinus infections. They also cause pneumonia.

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

  • Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children
  • Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an illness caused by a virus. It causes a rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It can also occur in the diaper area, and on the legs and arms.

  • Have a Hazard-Free Halloween
  • Halloween safety begins at home, with the child's costume. Every part of the costume -- masks, beards, wigs and clothing -- should be made of flame-resistant material.

  • Head Injury in Children
  • A head injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise (contusion), or cut on the head. Or it can be a concussion, a deep cut or open wound, broken skull bones, internal bleeding, or damage to the brain. Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in children.

  • Head Lice in Children
  • Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.

  • Headaches in Children
  • A headache is pain or discomfort in one or more areas of the head or face. Headaches can happen once in a while. Or they may happen often.

  • Health Highlights: April 16, 2020
  • U.S. Navy Hospital Ship May Reduce Services in LASharp Drop in Demand for Coronavirus Tests at Private LabsAmericans Using More Anti-Anxiety Medications

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 11, 2020
  • WHO Holds Meeting on Fast-Tracking Vaccines and Treatments for New CoronavirusMarijuana Use May Increase Risk of False Memories

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 12, 2020
  • Labeling Error Led to Release of Woman Infected with Coronavirus: U.S. OfficialsCongo Ebola Outbreak Seems to Be EasingGolf May Be a Recipe for Longevity

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 13, 2020
  • X1-5 Hoverboards Pose Fire RiskSome Coronavirus Testing Kits Sent to States Are Faulty: CDCLabeling Error Led to Release of Woman Infected with Coronavirus: U.S. Officials

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 14, 2020
  • Medtronic MiniMed 600 Series Insulin Pumps RecalledU.S Life Expectancy to Reach 85 by 2060Unilever to Stop Marketing to Children

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 19, 2020
  • Woman Plays Violin During Brain SurgeryA Baby's Gender is 'Essentially Random'Japanese Couple on Delta Flight From Hawaii Diagnosed With Coronavirus

  • Health Highlights: Feb. 20, 2020
  • First Coronavirus Death Reported in South KoreaPregnant Women Who Take Macrolide Antibiotics Have Increased Risk of Birth Defects: StudyWoman Plays Violin During Brain Surgery

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 15, 2020
  • Americans Drinking More Than Before ProhibitionRisk of Human-to-Human Transmission of New Coronavirus Appears Possible: Chinese Officials

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 16, 2020
  • Risque Slogans Halt Utah Condom Distribution PlanJapan Reports First Case of New CoronavirusCongresswoman Seeks Treatment for Alcoholism

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 23, 2020
  • China Bans Travel in Wuhan, Four Nearby CitiesSurgical Gown Shortage Seen in U.S.Utah Bans So-Called Gay 'Conversion' Therapy

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 28, 2020
  • Dangerous Additives Found in Illegal Pot Vaping Products Seized in LADrug Price-Fixing Charge Laid Against 'Pharma Bro' Martin Shkreli

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 7, 2020
  • American Embassy in China Issues Health Alert Over Mystery Illness'Prozac Nation' Author Elizabeth Wurtzel Dies of Breast Cancer at 52Whole Milk May Lower Children's Obesity RiskHealth Claims on Gwyneth Paltrow's New Netflix 'Goop' Show Raise Concerns

  • Health Highlights: Jan. 8, 2020
  • Many With Dog Allergies Might Only Be Allergic to Male DogsAmerican Embassy in China Issues Health Alert Over Mystery Illness

  • Health Highlights: July 2, 2020
  • Promising Results for Experimental COVID-19 Vaccine in Early Testing: PfizerU.S. Grab of Only COVID-19 Treatment Outrages Health Experts

  • Health Highlights: June 16, 2020
  • Steroid Reduces COVID-19 Death Risk by a Third: ResearchersBlack Americans Much More Likely to Have Lost Loved Ones to COVID-19

  • Health Highlights: June 19, 2020
  • No Protest-Related Increases in Coronavirus Infections: Early DataToo Much Sitting Increases Risk of Cancer Death: StudyJournal Should Retract Mask Study: ScientistsCoronavirus Antibodies May Not Last Long: Study

  • Health Highlights: June 22, 2020
  • Pot Legalization Could Lead to More Road Deaths: StudiesAir Quality 'Hazardous' as Giant Dust Cloud Engulfs CaribbeanChildren's Robitussin Honey Cough And Chest Congestion DM RecalledSkin-Lightening Products Dropped by Johnson & Johnson

  • Health Highlights: June 4, 2020
  • George Floyd Had Coronavirus, Autopsy ConfirmsDaily Aspirin Not A Good Choice for Healthy PeopleCertain Genes Linked With Severe COVID-19Fauci Says Any COVID-19 Vaccine Would Be in Plentiful Supply By 2021

  • Health Highlights: June 8, 2020
  • People Should Wear Masks if Unable to Social Distance: WHOPartnership Would Bypass Drug Industry to Sell Coronavirus Vaccine

  • Health Highlights: June 9, 2020
  • WHO Backpedals on Claim That Spread of Coronavirus by People Without Symptoms is RareCalif. Health Official Who Ordered Mandatory Use of Masks Resigns After Threats, ProtestsNew Coronavirus Introduced to California Several Different Times: Study

  • Health Highlights: March 12, 2020
  • Tom Hanks and Wife Have CoronavirusNBA Suspends Season After Player Tests Positive for CoronavirusHealth Benefits of Cycle Commuting Outweigh Injury Risk: Study

  • Health Highlights: March 16, 2020
  • U.S. Distilleries Making Hand SanitizerN.Y. and Colorado Ask Former Health Care Workers to Return to WorkforceVisitors Banned from U.S. Federal, State Prisons

  • Health Highlights: March 24, 2020
  • Shortages Seen of Drugs That Show Promise Against CoronavirusUniversity Students in Florida Test Positive for Coronavirus After Spring Break

  • Health Highlights: March 30, 2020
  • Eilish, Carey, Other Stars Perform From Home in Coronavirus Benefit ConcertU.S. Army Opens Field Hospital in New York City66 Coronavirus Cases in Maryland Nursing HomeResearchers Find Way to Clean N95 Masks for Re-Use

  • Health Highlights: March 4, 2020
  • Mariah Carey Latest Performer to Change Tour Due To Coronavirus OutbreakHuge Spike in U.S. Demand for Hand SanitizersBack and Neck Pain Top U.S. Health Care SpendingCRISPR Used Inside Person's Body For First Time

  • Health Highlights: March 5, 2020
  • Pet Dogs and Cats Can't Pass New Coronavirus to People: Experts'Skull Breaker' Challenge Puts Kids at Serious Injury RiskMariah Carey Latest Performer to Change Tour Due To Coronavirus Outbreak

  • Health Highlights: May 1, 2020
  • New Initiative to Study Coronavirus GenomeMental Health Struggles Common During Pandemic Lockdown: SurveyMore Airlines to Make Passenger Face Coverings Mandatory

  • Health Highlights: May 11, 2020
  • 'Seinfeld' Actor Jerry Stiller Dies at Age 92Three New York State Youngsters Die of Syndrome Possibly Linked with COVID-19Bill Would Close Live Animal Markets in New York State

  • Health Highlights: May 13, 2020
  • Doctors Should Watch for Inflammatory Syndrome in Kids Tied to Coronavirus: CDCNew York City May Have Had Thousands More COVID-19 Deaths Than Thought

  • Health Highlights: May 18, 2020
  • Pro Sports Should Plan to Resume Play: NY GovernorExperimental Coronavirus Vaccine Appears Safe, Triggers Immune ResponseWHO's Response to Coronavirus Pandemic Should Be Evaluated: Member NationsCoronavirus Tests Available to Anyone in LA

  • Health Highlights: May 20, 2020
  • Sales of Johnson's Baby Powder Halted in U.S., CanadaAnnie Glenn, Widow of Astronaut John Glenn, Dies at Age 100U.S. Births Hit 35-Year Low

  • Health Highlights: May 28, 2020
  • Coronavirus Antibody Tests Still Not Accurate Enough: CDCLarge U.S. Pharmacy Chains Played Role in Opioid Crisis, Lawsuit ClaimsAIDS Activist and Playwright Larry Kramer Dies at 84Preventative Meds Help Reduce Rebound Headaches: Study

  • Health Highlights: May 4, 2020
  • International Summit Raises $8 Billion to Fight New CoronavirusCarnival to Resume Some U.S.-Based CruisesKroger Limits Ground Beef, Fresh Pork PurchasesBoris Johnson Knew Doctors Were Discussing His Possible Death From COVID-19Field Hospital in NYC's Central Park to Close

  • Health Highlights: Nov. 14, 2019
  • WHO to Test, Approve Generic InsulinFirst Ebola Vaccine Approved by European CommissionMinimum Age to Buy Tobacco, E-Cigarette Products Raised to 21 in NY State

  • Health Highlights: Nov. 5, 2019
  • Fecal Transplants Better Than Antibiotics in Preventing C. Diff Infection ComplicationsVegetable Products Recalled by Mann Packing

  • Health Highlights: Oct. 13, 2020
  • Coronavirus Pandemic Will Cost U.S. $16 TrillionSecond Wave of Mental Health Fallout From Pandemic "Imminent," Experts SayNew Coronavirus Can Survive on Some Surfaces Up to 28 DaysFirst Confirmed U.S. Case of COVID-19 Reinfection

  • Health Highlights: Oct. 29, 2019
  • Listeria Fears Spur Apple RecallVaccine Might Help Prevent Active TB in Those InfectedFacebook Launches Preventive Health Tool

  • Health Highlights: Oct. 5, 2020
  • CDC Now Acknowledges Airborne Transmission of COVIDCoronavirus May Have Infected 1 in 10 Worldwide: WHOThree Scientists Share Nobel Prize for Hepatitis C ResearchDaily COVID-19 Cases in U.S. Highest in MonthsCoronavirus-Linked Syndrome Seen in Children Also Occurs in Adults

  • Health Highlights: Oct. 9, 2020
  • U.S. COVID-19 Deaths Could Reach 233,000 by End of October: CDCAmericans Washing Hands More OftenDual Coronavirus-Flu Vaccine to Start Human TrialsMask Mandates, Business Closures Led to 75% Drop in Coronavirus Infections in ArizonaWomen More Likely to Take Coronavirus Precautions Than Men

  • Health Highlights: Sept. 4, 2020
  • Russia COVID-19 Vaccine Produces Immune Response COVID-19 Halts or Complicates Hollywood ProductionsCOVID-19 Could Claim 400,000 U.S. Lives By Jan.1, Experts SayScience Not Yet Advanced Enough for Genetic Editing of Embryos: Expert Panel

  • Health Highlights: Sept. 8, 2020
  • States Should Prepare for COVID Vaccine by Nov. 1: U.S. Surgeon GeneralBiden Says He'd Get Approved Coronavirus Vaccine ImmediatelyNo Evidence That Food is Source of Coronavirus Transmission: Experts

  • Health Highlights: Sept. 9, 2020
  • Pandemic Threatens Gains in Reducing Preventable Childhood DeathsClinical Trial of AstraZeneca Coronavirus Vaccine Paused After IllnessNew COVID-19 Test Provides Results in 15 Minutes

  • Healthy Diets Overview
  • Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age.

  • Healthy Sleep Habits
  • The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

  • Hearing Aids for Children
  • Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve. Read on to learn about the types of hearing aids available, and what to think about before buying one.

  • Hearing Loss in Babies
  • Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country. But when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

  • Heart Disorders
  • Detailed information on heart disorders in high-risk newborns

  • Heart Failure in Children
  • Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

  • Heart Murmurs in Children
  • Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

  • Heart Transplant for Children
  • A heart transplant is a surgery to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from an organ donor. Organ donors are adults or children who have become critically ill, often because because of injury. They will not live because of their illness or injury.

  • Helicobacter Pylori in Children
  • H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a spiral-shaped germ (bacteria) that infects the stomach. It can damage the tissue in your child’s stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This can cause redness and swelling (inflammation). It may also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

  • Helping Kids Cope with a Divorce
  • Anger, fear, separation anxiety, a sense of abandonment, self-blame, sadness and embarrassment are common reactions to divorce for most children.

  • Helping Kids Get Over their Fears
  • Studies indicate that almost all children report having fears. Some of the most common fears are of bugs or ghosts, and studies have shown that kids are afraid of pretty much the same things no matter where they live in the world.

  • Helping Teens Embrace Self-Care
  • Before your teens leave home, teach them to make their own healthcare decisions. One way is to provide information and include them in their own self-care from an early age.

  • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) in Children
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

  • Hemolytic Anemia in Children
  • The hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can make them. The term for destruction of red blood cells is hemolysis.

  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Children
  • An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

  • Hepatitis in Children
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.

  • Hepatoblastoma in Children
  • Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancer. It’s a tumor that starts in the liver. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It usually affects children less than 3 to 4 years of age.

  • Herpangina in Children
  • Herpangina is a very common illness in children. It causes small blister-like bumps or sores (ulcers) in the mouth.

  • Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) in Children
  • Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. Once a child is infected with the virus, the virus becomes inactive (dormant) for long periods of time. It can then become active at any time and cause cold sores.

  • High Blood Pressure in Children and Teens
  • Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

  • High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders
  • Detailed information on blood disorders that place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional

  • Hirschsprung Disease in Children
  • Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

  • HIV Home Care
  • Detailed information on HIV home care for your child

  • HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy
  • A mother with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children
  • Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Holter Monitoring for Children
  • Holter monitoring is a way to continuously check the electrical activity of the heart. Your child will wear a small device called a Holter monitor for at least 24 to 48 hours. The device constantly checks your child's heart during this time.

  • Home Page - Adolescent Medicine
  • Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

  • Home Page - Burns
  • Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

  • Home Page - Craniofacial Anomalies
  • Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

  • Home Page - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children
  • Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

  • Home Page - Medical Genetics
  • Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

  • Hospice
  • The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill child peace, comfort, and dignity.

  • How the Liver Works
  • Detailed information on how the liver works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system

  • How to Bathe Your Baby
  • As a new parent, you may find tub time" a bit scary. Here are some suggestions on how to make it less stressful."

  • How to Comfort a Crying Baby
  • Some babies cry for long stretches at 3 and 12 weeks of age during steps in development when their sleep is less settled.

  • How to Use a Pacifier
  • It seems everyone has an opinion about pacifiers. That's because there are both advantages and disadvantages to using them. Get the full facts so you can make the right choice for your baby.

  • Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) in Children
  • Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies. But they can occur in people of any age, especially those with a weak immune system.

  • Hydrocele in Children
  • A hydrocele is fluid buildup in the thin pouch that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

  • Hydrocephalus
  • A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

  • Hydrops Fetalis
  • Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It is a life-threatening problem.

  • Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn
  • Hyperbilirubinemia happens when there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. Bilirubin is made by the breakdown of red blood cells. It’s hard for babies to get rid of bilirubin. It can build up in their blood, tissues, and fluids.

  • Hypocalcemia in the Newborn
  • Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

  • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

  • Hypoglycemia in Children
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

  • Hypoparathyroidism in Children
  • Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

  • Hypopituitarism in Children
  • Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) in Children
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

  • Hypospadias in Children
  • Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

  • Shingles (Herpes Zoster) in Children
  • Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful skin rash. It’s caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This is the same virus that causes chickenpox.

  • Styes in Children
  • A stye is a sore red bump on the edge of the eyelid. Styes are one of the most common eye problems in children. Here's what you should know.

  • Treatment for Human Bites
  • Human bite wounds are more likely to become infected than dog or cat bites. A healthcare provider should check any human bite that breaks the skin.