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Health Library A to Z

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  • Acute Bronchitis in Children
  • Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large breathing tubes (bronchi) in the lungs. Short-term (acute) bronchitis means that the symptoms often develop quickly and don't last long.

  • Arrhythmias in Children
  • An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly. Read on to learn more.

  • Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children
  • A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area doesn't form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.

  • Bronchiolitis in Children
  • Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lungs. It's when your child has swelling in the smaller airways (bronchioles) of the lung. This swelling blocks air in the smaller airways.

  • Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)
  • A black eye should be seen by a healthcare provider to make sure no injury has happened to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and don't cause any damage.

  • Bulimia Nervosa in Children
  • Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

  • Cellulitis of the Eye in Children
  • Cellulitis is a serious type of infection and inflammation. It can occur in various parts of the body. When it occurs in the eyelid and tissues in the front part of the eye area, it’s called preseptal cellulitis. When it occurs behind and around the eye in the eye socket (orbit), it’s called orbital cellulitis. Both of these conditions are serious.

  • Chalazion in Children
  • A chalazion is a slow-growing, painless lump in the eyelid that forms because of the swelling of an oil gland. It’s more common in adults between ages 30 and 50 than in children.

  • Common Cold in Children
  • The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in children. Most children will have at least 6 to 8 colds a year.

  • Dysphagia in Children
  • Dysphagia means trouble swallowing. This condition happens when food or liquids can’t pass easily from your child’s mouth, into the throat, down the esophagus, and into the stomach when swallowing.

  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Children
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

  • Hypocalcemia in the Newborn
  • Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

  • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

  • Hypoglycemia in Children
  • Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Hypoglycemia can be a condition by itself or it can be a complication of diabetes or other disorder. Read on to learn more.

  • Juvenile Dermatomyositis
  • Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare disease that causes muscle inflammation and a skin rash.

  • Lead Poisoning in Children
  • Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk. Read on to learn more.

  • Leukemia in Children
  • Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood. The cancer cells grow in bone marrow and go into the blood.

  • Lymphatic Malformations in Children
  • A lymphatic malformation is a lymphatic vessel that isn't formed correctly. The vessel traps the lymph fluid and causes cysts to form. Your child may have 1 or more of these cysts.

  • Major Depression in Teens
  • Major depression goes beyond the day's normal ups and downs. It involves a teen's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

  • Mouthguards
  • Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Newborn
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness in newborns. It happens when tissue in the large intestine (colon) gets inflamed. This inflammation damages and sometimes kills the tissue in your baby’s colon.

  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome is what happens when babies are exposed to drugs in the uterus before birth. Babies can then go through drug withdrawal after birth.

  • Normal Breast Development
  • Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Normal Vision
  • To understand how certain problems can affect your child's vision, it’s important to know how normal vision happens.

  • Pilomatrixoma in Children
  • A pilomatrixoma is a slow-growing, hard lump found under the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but it may be on other parts of the body. Read on to learn more.

  • Pneumothorax in Children
  • A pneumothorax is an air leak in the lungs. It's when air from the lungs leaks into the chest area.

  • Swimmer’s Ear in Children
  • Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by bacteria or fungi. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for instance, may let bacteria and fungi grow.

  • Teething
  • A baby's first tooth often appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Some babies get their first tooth a little earlier and others a little later. Here's what you need to know.

  • Thrombocytopenia in the Newborn
  • Thrombocytopenia means that a newborn baby has too few platelets in their blood. Platelets are blood cells that help the blood clot. They are made in the bone marrow.

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography for Children
  • Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children
  • Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

  • Type 2 Diabetes in Children
  • Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body.

  • Ulcerative Colitis in Children
  • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this condition, the inner lining of your child’s large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum gets inflamed. This inflammation often starts in the rectum and lower (sigmoid) intestine. Then it spreads to the whole colon.

  • Ultrafast CT Scan for Children
  • An ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to look at your child’s heart. It gives the healthcare provider many details about your child’s heart that other imaging tests can’t.

  • Umbilical Cord Care
  • In a few weeks, your baby will have the cutest little belly button. But right now the healing remains of his umbilical cord need special care. Here's how to make sure the cord remainder stays infection-free.

  • Understanding Eating Disorders
  • At least 8 million people in the U.S. are living with an eating disorder. Read on for a helpful overview of the 3 main types of eating disorders.

  • Understanding the Teen Brain
  • Parents need to realize the rational part of a teen's brain isn't fully developed and won't be until he or she is 25 years old or so.

  • Undescended Testes in Children
  • Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.

  • Upper Respiratory Disorders
  • Detailed information on the most common types of upper respiratory infections, including common cold, influenza, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and sinusitis

  • Urticaria (Hives) in Children
  • Hives is a sudden outbreak of red, itchy, and swollen areas on the skin. It often happens as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medicines. Here's what you should know.

  • Why Children Bite
  • A young child may bite out of frustration or when under stress. Biting may also be an attempt to gain power, or just a way of exploring the world. Read on to learn how to respond if your child bites, no matter what the cause.